'speech'. On right sp., s. magga (3), sacca
(IV.3). - Low talk, s. tiracchána-kathá.
'verbal action'; s. karma, kamma-patha.
'verbal karma-formation', or 'verbal function'.
For verbal karma-formation, s. sankhára (I. 1).
For verbal function (of mind), i.e. thought-conception and discursive
thinking, s. sankhára (I. 2).
Contemplation of: vayánupassaná, is one of the 18
chief kinds of insight (vipassána, q.v.).
and reappearing: knowledge of the v. and r. of beings
according to karma, is identical with the divine eye (s. abhiññá
'morality consisting in avoiding' (evil things), as distinguished
from 'morality consisting in performing' (good things). See
'mastery'. Vis.M. IV speaks of 5 kinds of m., which anyone
who wishes to develop the absorptions (jhána, q.v.) should
acquire first of all, with regard to the 1st absorption, namely:
mastery in adverting to it (ávajjana-vasí), in entering
it (samápajjana-vasí), in determining it (adhitthána-vasí),
in rising therefrom (vutthána-vasí), in retrospection
(paccavekkhana-vasí). - (App.).
wherever, whenever, and for whatever duration desired, one enters
the 1st absorption, and at one's entering it, no slowness is
experienced, this is called mastery in entering the absorption,
etc. In an analogous way, the 4 remaining kinds are to be explained"
(Vis.M. IV, 131f; XXIII, 27ff.).
1. 'round', 2. 'round of rebirths'.
With reference to the dependent origination (paticcasamuppáda,
q.v.), Vis.M. XVII speaks of 3 rounds: the karma round (kamma-vatta)
comprising the karma-formations and the karmaprocess (2nd and
10th links); the round of defilements (kilesa-vatta)
comprising ignorance, craving and clinging (1st, 8th and 9th
links); the round of results (vipáka-vatta) comprising
consciousness, mind and corporeality, 6 bases, impression, feeling
(3rd-7th links). Cf. paticcasamuppáda (diagram).
round of rebirth = samsára (q.v.).
'physical base', i.e. the 6 physical organs on which the
mental process is based, are the 5 physical sense-organs and,
according to the Com., the heart (hadaya-vatthu, q.v.)
as the 6th. This 6th vatthu must not be confounded with
the 6th áyatana, which is a collective name for all consciousness
whatever. - (App.).
'objective sensuality', the 5 sense-objects; s. káma.
'determining', defining. In its application to insight meditation,
this term occurred first in Pts.M. (I, p. 53); but in a verbal
form, as a past participle, already in M. 111: tyassa dhammá
anupada-vavatthitá honti, "these things (the mental
factors) were determined by him (i.e. Sáriputta) successively"
(s. Abh. St., p. 54). In Vis.M. XX, 130, it is said: 'The determining
of the truth of suffering is effected with the determining of
mind-and-body in the purification of view (s. visuddhi
III). The determining of the truth of origination is effected
with the discerning of conditions in the purification by transcending
doubt (s. visuddhi IV). The determining of the truth
of the path is effected by emphasis on the right path in the
purification by knowledge and vision of what is path and not-path
(s. visuddhi V). Thus the determining of the 3 truths
(suffering, origin, path) has been first effected by means of
mundane (lokiya, q.v.) knowledge only." - See sammasana,
the determining of the 4 physical elements, s. dhátuvavatthána.
'contemplation of vanishing', is one of the 18 chief kinds
of insight (vipassaná, q.v.).
'wind-element'; s. dhátu.
'wind-kasina', is one of the kasina exercises (kasina,
'feeling', sensation, is the 2nd of the 5 groups of existence
(s. khandha II). According to its nature, it may be divided
into 5 classes: (1) bodily agreeable feeling (káyiká sukhá-vedaná
= sukha); (2) bodily disagreeable feeling (káyiká dukkhá-vedaná
= dukkhá); (3) mentally agreeable feeling (cetasiká sukhá-vedaná
= somanassa); (4) mentally disagreeable feeling (cetasiká
dukkhá-vedaná = domanassa); (5) indifferent or neutral (adukkha-m-asukhá
vedaná = upekkhá, q.v.).
regard to the 6 senses, one distinguishes 6 kinds of feeling:
feeling associated with seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting,
bodily impression and mental impression. The textual wording
of it is 'feeling arisen through visual contact' (cakkhu-samphassajá
vedaná; S. XXII, 55; D. 22), etc.
is one of the 7 mental factors inseparably associated with all
consciousness whatever, s. náma. In the formula of the
dependent origination (paticcasamuppáda, q.v.), feeling
is the condition for the arising of craving (tanhá). The
above-mentioned 5 kinds of feeling are enumerated amongst the
22 faculties (indriya, q.v.). - See M. 59; Contemplation
of Feeling (Vedaná Samyutta), by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 303/304).
'contemplation of feeling', is one of the 4 foundations
of mindfulness (satipatthána q.v.).
is the name of a class of heavenly beings in the fine-material
world; s. deva.
action: vací-kamma; s. karma.
functions of mind: vací-sankhára; s. sankhára.
'self-confidence' of a Buddha is fourfold. He is confident:
1. to have attained to a perfect Enlightenment of which it cannot
be said that it omits anything essential to it; 2. to have destroyed
all cankers (ásava), leaving none that can be said to
be undestroyed by him; 3. that what were declared by him as
obstacles to liberation are undeniably such; 4. that his teaching
fulfils its purpose of actually leading to final liberation
from suffering. See A. IV, 8; VII, 58; M. 12.
'analytical or discriminating doctrine' is an early name
for the original Buddha doctrine, called Theraváda. - The term
vibhajja-vádí occurs in M. 99 and A. X, 94, though not
in the sense of a separate school, but as a characteristic of
the Buddha himself: "Now, by blaming what is blamable and
praising what is praiseworthy, the Blessed One is a 'discriminating
teacher' (vibhajja-vadí) and is not one-sided in his
teaching" (A. X, 94).
in the introduction to his Com. on the Kathávatthu, says that
in Asoka's time, when the Sangha prospered, many heretics took
ordination as Buddhist monks but continued to spread their wrong
doctrines. For purifying the Sangha, Asoka, together with the
venerable Moggaliputtatissa, summoned assembly of the bhikkhus.
When each of the assembled was individually questioned by the
king about what the Buddha taught, those who said that he was
an eternalist (sassata-vadí), etc. were expelled. The
genuine bhikkhus replied that the Buddha was a vibhajja-vadí,
an 'analyst' or 'discriminating teacher'; and when, on the king's
question, Moggaliputtatissa confirmed that this was the correct
view, those monks were admitted to the Uposatha (q.v.) assembly
of the Sangha, and from their midst the participants of the
3rd Council at Pataliputta were selected. - See Mahávamsa, tr.
by Wilh. Geiger, Ch. V, v. 268f.
ditthi = uccheda-ditthi; s. ditthi.
'craving for non-existence', or for self-annihilation; s.
'discursive thinking'; s. vitakka-vicára.
'sceptical doubt', is one of the 5 mental hindrances (nívarana,
q.v.) and one of the 3 fetters (samyojana, q.v.),
which disappear for ever at Stream-entry, the first stage of
holiness (s. ariya-puggala). As a fetter, it refers to
sceptical doubt about the Master (the Buddha), the Teaching,
the Sangha, and the training; about things past and future,
and conditionality (Dhs. 1004; cf. A . X, 71 ) . It also applies
to uncertainty whether things are wholesome or not, to be practised
or not, of high or low value, etc. According to Vis.M. XIV,
177, vicikicchá is the lack of desire to think (things
out i.e. to come to a conclusion; vigata-cikicchá, desiderative
to Ö cit,
to think); it has the nature of wavering, and its manifestation
is indecision and a divided attitude; its proximate cause is
unwise attention to matters of doubt. It is associated with
one of the 2 classes of unwholesome consciousness rooted in
delusion (Tab. I, No. 32). - See also kankhá.
right: sammá-ditthi; s. ditthi, magga 1, sacca
IV, 1. - For wrong view, s. ditthi.
'disappearance', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
'abode' There are 3 abodes: the heavenly abode (dibba-vihára),
the divine abode (brahma-vihára, q.v.), the noble abode
(ariya-vihára). See A. III, 63; D. 33.
'(higher) knowledge', gnosis. For the 3-fold k., s. abhiññá
and te-vijjá. Cf. foll.
knowledge and conduct'. This expression occurs in those
passages in the suttas where the qualities of a Buddha are described,
namely: Truly, the Blessed One is holy, is fully enlightened,
perfect in knowledge and conduct..." According to Vis.M.
VII, 1 and D. 3, knowledge (vijjá) refers here either
to the 3-fold knowledge (s. te-vijjá), or to the 8 kinds
of knowledge, namely: the 6 higher spiritual powers (abhiññá,
q.v.), insight (vipassaná, q.v.), and magical power
(iddhi, q.v.); whilst conduct (carana) refers
to 15 things: moral restraint, watching over the sense-doors,
moderation in eating, wakefulness, faith, moral shame, moral
dread, great learning, energy, mindfulness, wisdom and the 4
'overcoming by repression' (or 'suspension'), is one of
the 5 kinds of overcoming (pahána, q.v.).
the 'power of transformation', is one of the magical faculties
'investigation, inquiry, pondering', is one of the 4 roads
to power (iddhi-páda, q.v.) and one of the 4 factors
of predominance (s. paccaya, 3).
'liberation' (deliverance). I. the 3; II. the 8.
The 3 liberations are: 1. the conditionless (or signless) liberation
(animitta-v.), 2. the desireless liberation (apanihita-v.),
3. the emptiness (or void) liberation (suññatá-v. ).
They are also called 'the triple gateway to liberation' (vimokkha-mukha;
Vis.M. XXI, 66ff), as they are three different approaches to
the paths of holiness. - See visuddhi VI, 8. Cf. Vis
XXI, 6ff, 121ff; Pts.M. II. Vimokkha-Kathá.
"Whosoever being filled with determination (adhimokkha,
q.v.), considers all formations as impermanent (anicca),
such a one attains the conditionless liberation. 2. Whosoever
being filled with tranquillity, considers all formations as
painful (dukkha), such a one attains the desireless liberation.
3. Whosoever being filled with wisdom, considers all formations
as without a self (anattá), such a one attains the emptiness
liberation" (Vis.M. XXI, 70 = Pts.M. II, p. 58).
and (2) are mentioned and explained in M. 43, under the name
of deliverances of mind (ceto-vimutti, q.v.). - (2) and
(3) appear in Dhs. (344ff, 353ff) in the section on supermundane
consciousness (see Atthasálini Tr., p. 299ff).
The 8 liberations (attha vimokkha) occur frequently in
the texts (A. VIII, 66; D. 16, etc.) and are described as follows:
are 8 liberations, o monks. Which are these?
''Whilst remaining in the fine-material sphere (rúpí), one
perceives corporeal forms: this is the first liberation.
"Not perceiving corporcal forms on one's own person, one
perceives corporcal forms externally: this is the 2nd liberation.
''By thinking of the beautiful, one is filled with confidence:
this is the 3rd liberation.
"Through the total ovcrcoming of the corporeality-perceptions,
the vanishing of the reflex-perceptions, and the non-attention
to the multiformity-perceptions, with the idea 'Unbounded is
space', one reaches the sphere of unbounded space (ákásánañcáyatana)
and abides therein: this is the 4th liberation.
"Through the total ovcrcoming of the sphere of unbounded
space, and with the idea 'Unbounded is consciousness', one reaches
the sphere of unbounded consciousness (viññánañcáyatana)
and abides therein: this is the 5th liberation.
"Through the total overcoming of the sphere of unbounded
consciousness, and with the idea 'Nothing is there', one reaches
the sphere of nothingness (ákiñeaññáyatana) and abides
therein: this is the 6th liberation.
"Through the total overcoming of the sphere of nothingness,
one reaches the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
(n'eva-saññá-násaññáyatana) and abides therein: this
is the 7th liberation .
"Through the total overcoming of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception,
one reaches the extinction of perception and feeling (s. nirodha-samápatti):
this is the 8th liberation.
o monks, are the 8 kinds of liberation."
(1-3), s. abhibháyatana; for (4-7), s. jhána;
for (8), s. nirodha-samápatti.
(3) is meant the attainment of the fine-material absorptions
(jhána, q.v.) by means of concentrating the mind on perfectly
pure and bright colours as objects of the kasina (q.v.). According
to Pts.M. this mental state is produced also by concentrating
the mind on the 4 sublime states, i.e. all-embracing kindness,
compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity, in consequence of
which allbeings appear perfectly pure and glorified, and thus
the mind turns to the beautiful.
Pts.M. II, Vimokkha-kathá; Atthasálini Tr., p. 255; App.
'deliverance', is of 2 kinds: deliverance of mind (ceto-vimutti,
q.v.) and deliverance through wisdom (paññá-vimutti,
of mind', in the highest sense, is that kind of concentration
(samádhi) which is bound up with the path of Arahatship
(arahatta-magga); 'deliverance through wisdom' is the
knowledge (ñána) bound up with the fruition of Arahatship
(arahatta-phala). Cf. A. V, 142.
are also 5 kinds of deliverance, identical with the 5 kinds
of overcoming (pahána, q.v.).
'world of suffering', is another name for the 4 woeful courses
(duggati; s. gati) of existence, and for the 4
lower worlds (apáya, q.v.).
Stream-Winner (sotápanna, q.v.) is no longer subject
to rebirth in them (avinipáta-dhamma).
'consciousness', is one of the 5 groups of existence (aggregates;
khandha, q.v.); one of the 4 nutriments (áhára, q.v.);
the 3rd link of the dependent origination (paticcasamuppáda,
q.v.); the 5th in the sixfold division of elements (dhátu,
as one of the 5 groups (khandha), it is inseparably linked
with the 3 other mental groups (feeling, perception and formations)
and furnishes the bare cognition of the object, while the other
3 contribute more specific functions. Its ethical and karmic
character, and its greater or lesser degree of intensity and
clarity, are chiefly determined by the mental formations associated
like the other groups of existence, consciousness is a flux
(viññána-sotá, 'stream of c.') and does not constitute
an abiding mind-substance; nor is it a transmigrating entity
or soul. The 3 characteristies (s. ti-lakkhana), impermanence,
suffering and no-self, are frequently applied to it in the texts
(e.g., in the Anattalakkhana Sutta, S.XXII, 59). The Buddha
often stressed that "apart from conditions, there is no
arising of consciousness' (M 38); and all these statements about
its nature hold good for the entire range of consciousness,
be it "past, future or presently arisen, gross or subtle,
in oneself or external, inferior or lofty, far or near"
(S. XXII, 59).
to the 6 senses it divides into 6 kinds, viz. eye- (or visual)
consciousness (cakkhu-v.), etc. About the dependent arising
of these 6 kinds of consciousness, Vis.M. XV, 39 says: 'Conditioned
through the eye, the visible object, light and attention, eye-consciousness
arises. Conditioned through the ear, the audible object, the
ear-passage and attention, ear-consciousness arises. Conditioned,
through the nose, the olfactive object, air and attention, nose-consciousness
arises. Conditioned through the tongue, the gustative object,
humidity and attention, tongue-consciousness arises. Condlitioned
through the body, bodily impression, the earth-element and attention,
body-consciousness arises. Conditioned through the subconscious
mind (bhavanga-mano), the mind-object and attention,
Abhidhamma literature distinguishes 89 crasses of consciousness,
being either karmically wholesome, unwholesome or neutral, and
belonging either to the sense-sphere, the fine-material or the
immaterial sphere, or to supermundane consciousness. See Table
'functions of consciousness', as exercised within a process
of consciousness or cognitive series (cittavíthi). In
the Abhidhamma Com. and Vis.M. XIV the following functions are
mentioned: rebirth (patisandhi), subconsciousness (bhavanga),
advertence (ávajjana), seeing, hearing, smelling,
tasting, body-consciousness; recciving (sampaticchana),
investigating (santírana), determining (votthapana),
impulsion (javana), registering (tadárammana),
single unit of sense-perception (e.g. visual consciousness),
being conditioned through a sense-organ and its corresponding
object, forms in reality an extremely complex process, in which
all the single phases of consciousness follow one upon another
in rapid succession, while performing their respective functions,
soon as a visible object has entered the range of vision, it
acts on the sensitive eye-organ (cakkhu-pasáda), and
conditioned thereby an excitation of the subconscious stream
(bhavanga-sota) takes place.
soon, however, as subconsciousness is broken off, the functional
mind-element (s. Tab. I, 70), grasping the object and breaking
through the subconscious stream, performs the function of 'adverting'
the mind towards the object (ávajjana).
thereupon there arises at the eye-door, and based on the sensitive
eye-organ, the eye-consciousness, while performing the function
of 'seeing' (dassana).... Immediately thereafter there
arises the mind-element (Tab
39, 55) performing the function of 'receiving' (sampaticchana)
the object of that consciousness....
thereafter there arises... the mind-consciousness-element (Tab.
I, 40, 41, 56), while 'investigating' (santirana) the
object received by the mind-element...
thereafter there arises the functional, rootless mind-consciousness-element
(Tab. I, 71), accompanied by indifference, while performing
the function of 'determining' (votthapana) the object......
if the object is large, then immediately afterwards there flash
forth 6 or 7 'impulsive moments' (javana-citta), constituted
by one of the 8 wholesome, or 12 unwholesome, or 9 functional
classes of consciousness (Tab. I, 1-8; 22-23; 72-80).
if at the end of the impulsive moments, the object at the five-sense
doors is very large, and at the mind-door clear, then there
arises, once or twice, one of the 8 root-accompanied, karma-resultant
classes of consciousness (Tab. I, 42-49) of the sense-sphere,
or one of the 3 rootless karma-resultant mind-consciousness-elements
(Tab. I, 40, 41, 56).... Because this consciousness after the
vanishing of the impulsive moments, possesses the faculty continuing
with the object of the subconsciousness, taking the object of
the subconsciousness as its own object, therefore it is called
'registering' (tadárarmmana, lit. 'that object', or 'having
that as object')" (Vis.M. XIV, 115ff).
however, the sense-object is weak, then it reaches merely the
stage of 'impulsion' (javana), or of 'determining'
(votthapana); if very weak, only an excitation ot the subconsciousness
proeess of the inner or mind-consciousness, i.e. without participation
of the 5 physical senses, is as follows: in the case that the
mind-objeet entering the mind-door is distinct, then it passes
through the stages of 'advertence at the mind-door' (manodvárávajjana),
the 'impulsive stage' and the 'registering stage', before finally
sinking into the subconscious stream. - (App.: citta-víthi).
Aids to the Abhidhamma Philosophy, by Dr. C.B Dharmasena
(with colour chart of the Cognitive Series; WHEEL 63/64).
- The Psychology and Philosophy of Buddhism, by Dr. W. F.
Javasuriya (Buddhist Missionary Socy., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia).
'sphere of boundless consciousn is a name for the 2nd meditiative
absorption in the immateria sphere (s. jhána, 6).
'abodes or supports of consciousness'. The texts describe
7 such abodes (e.g. A. VII, 41):
"There are beings who are different in body and different
in perception, such as men, some heavenly beings, and some beings
living in states of suffering (s. apáya). This is the
1st abode of consciousness.
"There are beings who are different in body but equal in
perception, such as the first-born gods of the Brahmaworld (s.
deva II). This is the 2nd abode of consciousness.
"There are beings who are equal in body but different in
perception, such as the Radiant Gods (ábhassara-deva).
This is the 3rd abode of consciousness.
''There are beings who are equal in body and equal in perception,
such as the All-illuminating Gods (subhakinha-deva).
This is the 4th abode of consciousness.
"There are beings ... reborn in the sphere of boundless
space. This is the 5th abode of consciousness.
"There are beings ... reborn in the sphere of boundless
consciousness. This is the 6th abode of consciousness.
There are beings... reborn in the sphere of nothingness. This
is the 7th abode of consciousness"
the 3 last-named spheres, s. jhána (5-7). Cf. sattávása.
D. 33 there are mentioned 4 viññána-tthiti, apparently
in the sense of 'bases' of consciousness, namely: corporeality,
feeling, perception, mental formations, which in S. XXII, 53
are further explained.
(lit. 'making known') 'intimation', is an Abhidhamma term
for bodily expression (káya-viññatti) and verbal expression
(vací-viññatti), both belonging to the corporeality-group.
They are produced by the co-nascent volition, and are therefore,
as such, purely physical and not to be confounded with karma
(q.v.), which as such is something mental. Cf. Kath. 80, 100,
101, 103, 194 (s. Guide V). - (App.).
speaks of 'bodily expression', because it makes known an intention
by means of bodily movement, and can itself be understood by
the bodily movement which is said to be corporeal.
'Verbal expression' is so called because it makes known an intention
by means of a speech-produced noise" (Vis.M. XIV).
(or vipañcitaññu): 'one who realizes the truth after
explanation.' Thus is called one who realizes the truth only
after detailed explanation of that which already had been said
to him in a concise form. Cf. ugghatitaññu.
'karma-result', is any karmically (morally) neutral mental
phenomenon (e.g. bodily agreeable or painful feeling, sense-consciousness,
etc. ), which is the result of wholesome or unwholesome volitional
action (karma, q.v.) through body, speech or mind, done either
in this or some previous life. Totally wrong is the belief that,
according to Buddhism, everything is the result of previous
action. Never, for example, is any karmically wholesome or unwholesome
volitional action the result of former action, being in reality
itself karma. On this subject s. tittháyatana, karma,
Tab. I; Fund II. Cf. A. III, 101; Kath. 162 (Guide, p. 80).
(kammaja or kamma-samutthána) corporeal things
are never called kamma-vipáka, as this term may be applied
only to mental phenomena.
'karma-result condition' is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
'perversions' or 'distortions'. - ''There are 4 perversions
which may be either of perception (saññá-vipallása), of
consciousness (citta v.) or of views (ditthi-v.).
And which are these four? To regard what is impermanent (anicca)
as permanent; what is painful (dukkha) as pleasant (or
happiness-yielding); what is without a self (anattá)
as a self; what is impure (ugly: asubha) as pure or beautiful''
(A. IV, 49). - See Manual of Insight, by Ledi Sayadaw (WHEEL
the perversions, the following are eliminated by the 1st path-knowledge
(sotápatti): the perversions of perception, consciousness
and views, that the impermanent is permanent and what is not
a self is a self; further, the perversion of views that the
painful is pleasant, and the impure is pure. By the 3rd path-knowledge
(anágámitá) are eliminated: the perversions of perception
and consciousness that the impure is pure. By the 4th path-knowledge
(arahatta) are eliminated the perversions of perception
and consciousness that the painful is pleasant" (Vis.M.
'contemplation of change' (of all things), is one of the
18 chief kinds of insight (vipassaná, q.v.).
'insight', is the intuitive light flashing forth and exposing
the truth of the impermanency, the suffering and the impersonal
and unsubstantial nature of all corporeal and mental phenomena
of existence. It is insight-wisdom (vipassaná-paññá) that
is the decisive liberating factor in Buddhism, though it has
to be developed along with the 2 other trainings in morality
and concentration. The culmination of insight practice (s. visuddhi
VI) leads directly to the stages of holiness (s. visuddhi
is not the result of a mere intellectual understanding, but
is won through direct meditative observation of one's own bodily
and mental processes. In the commentaries and the Vis.M., the
sequene in developing insight-meditation is given as follows:
1. discernment of the corporeal (rúpa), 2. of the mental
(náma), 3. contemplation of both (námarúpa; i.e.
of their pairwise occurrence in actual events, and their interdependence),
4. both viewed as conditioned (application of the dependent
origination, paticcasamuppáda), 5. application of the
3 characteristics (impermanency, etc.) to mind-and-body-cum-conditions.
stages of gradually growing insight are described in the 9insight-
knowledges (vipassaná-ñána), constituting the 6th stage
of purification: beginning with the 'knowledge of rise and fall'
and ending with the 'adaptation to Truth'. For details, see
visuddhi VI and Vis.M. XXI.
chief kinds of insight-knowledge (or principal insights, mahá-vipassaná)
are listed and described in Vis.M. XXII, 113: (1) contemplation
of impermanence (aniccánupassaná), (2) of suffering (dukkhánupassaná),
(3) of no self (anattánupnupassaná), (4) of aversion
(nibbidánupassaná). (5) of detachment (virágánupassaná),
(6) of extinction (nirodhánupassaná), (7) of abandoning
(patinissaggánupassaná), (8) of waning (khayánupassaná),
(9) of vanishing (vayánupassaná), (10) of change (viparinámánupassaná),
(11) of the unconditioned (or signless, animittánupassaná),
(12) of desirelessness (apanihitánupassaná), (13) of
emptiness (suññatáupassaná), (14) insight into phenomena
which is higher wisdom (adhipaññá-dhamma-vipassaná),
(15) knowledge and vision according to reality (yathá-bhúta-ñánadassana),
(16) contemplation of misery (or danger, ádínavánupassaná),
(17) reflecting contemplation (patisankhánupassaná),
(18) contemplation of turning away (vivattanánupassaná).
these 18, the adverse ideas and views are overcome, for which
reason this way of overcoming is called 'overcoming by the opposite'
(tadanga-pahána, overcoming this factor by that). Thus
(1) dispels the idea of permanence. (2) the idea of happiness,
(3) the idea of self, (4) lust, (5) greed, (6) origination,
(7) grasping, (8) the idea of compactness, (9) karma-accumulation,
(10) the idea of lastingness, (11) the conditions, (12) delight,
(13) adherence, (14) grasping and adherence to the idea of substance,
(15) attachment and adherence, (17) thoughtlessness, (18) dispels
entanglement and clinging.
may be either mundane (lokiya, q.v.) or supermundane
(lokuttara, q.v.). Supermundane insight is of 3 kinds:
(1) joined with one of the 4 supermundane paths, (2) joined
with one of the fruitions of these paths, (3) regarding the
extinction, or rather suspension, of consciousness (s. nirodha-samápatti).
samatha-vipassaná, visuddhi, III-VII.
Manual of Insight, by Ledi Sayadaw (WHEL 31/32). Practical Insight
Meditation, Progress of Insight, both by Mahási Sayadaw (BPS).
The Experience of Insight, by Joseph Goldstein (BPS).