'ovcrcoming by the opposite', is one of the 5 kinds of overcoming
'registering consciousness' (s. Tab. I, 40-49, 56), is the
last stage in the complete process of cognition (citta-víthi)
immediately before sinking into the subconscious. It does not
occur with the consciousness of the absorptions nor with supermundane
consciousness, but only with large or distinct objects of the
sensuous sphere. Cf. viññána-kicca.
low: tiracchána-kathá (q.v.).
(lit. 'thirst'): 'craving', is the chief root of suffering,
and of the ever-continuing cycle of rebirths. "What, o
monks, is the origin of suffering? It is that craving which
gives rise to ever-fresh rebirth and, bound up with pleasure
and lust, now here, now there, finds ever fresh delight. It
is the sensual craving (káma-tanhá), the craving for
existence (bhava-tanhá), the craving for non-existence
(vibhava-tanhá)'' (D. 22). T. is the 8th link
in the formula of the dependent origination (paticcasamuppáda,
q.v.). Cf. sacca.
to the 6 sense-objects, there are 6 kinds of craving craving
for visible objects, for sounds, odours, tastes, bodily impressions,
mental impressions (rúpa-, sadda-, gandha-, rasa-, photthabba-,
dhamma-tanhá). (M. 9; D. 15)
to the 3-fold existence, there are 3 kinds: craving for sensual
existence (káma-tanhá), for fine-material existence (rúpa-tanhá),
for immaterial existence (arúpa-tanhá). (D. 33)
are 18 'thought-channels of craving' (tanhá-vicarita)
induced internally, and 18 induced externally; and as occurring
in past, present and future, they total 108; see A. IV, 199;
Vibh., Ch. 17 (Khuddakavatthu-Vibhanga).
to the dependent origination, craving is conditioned by feeling;
on this see D. 22 (section on the 2nd Truth).
craving for existence (bhava-tanhá ) it is said (A. X,
62): "No first beginning of the craving for existence can
be perceived, o monks, before which it was not and after which
it came to be. But it can he perceived that craving for existence
has its specific condition. I say, o monks, that also craving
for existence has its condition that feeds it (sáharam)
and is not without it. And what is it? 'Ignorance', one has
to reply." - Craving for existence and ignorance are called
"the outstanding causes that lead to happy and unhappy
destinies (courses of existence)" (s. Vis.M. XVII, 36-42).
most frequent synonyms of tanhá are rága (q.v.)
and lobha (s. múla).
'extinction of craving', is identical with 'extinction of
cankers' (ásavakkhaya) and the attainment of perfect
Holiness or Arahatship. Cf. ariya-puggala.
'morality based on craving' (s. nissaya).
the 'Perfect One', lit. the one who has 'thus gone', or
'thus come', is an epithet of the Buddha used by him when speaking
the often asked questions, whether the Tathágata still exists
after death, or not, it is said (e.g. S. XXII, 85, 86) that,
in the highest sense (paramattha, q.v.) the Tathágata
cannot, even at lifetime, be discovered, how much less after
death, and that neither the 5 groups of existence (khandha,
q.v.) are to be regarded as the Tathágata, nor can the Tathágata
be found outside these corporeal and mental phenomena. The meaning
intended here is that there exist only these ever-changing corporeal
and mental phenomena, arising and vanishing from moment to moment,
but no separate entity, no personality.
the commentaries in this connection explain Tathágata by 'living
being' (satta), they mean to say that here the questioners
are using the merely conventional expression, Tathágata, in
the sense of a really existing entity.
anattá, paramattha, puggala, jíva, satta.
commentarial treatise on "The Meaning of the Word 'Tathágata'
" is included in The All-Embracing Net of Views (Brahmajála
Sutta), tr. Bhikkhu Bodhi (BPS).
the 'ten powers of the Perfect One'; s. dasa-bala.
'Suchness', designates the firmly fixed nature (bháva)
of all things whatever. The only passage in the Canon where
the word occurs in this sense, is found in Kath. 186 (s. Guide,
p. 83). On the Maháyana term tathatá, s. Suzuki, Awakening
of Faith, p. 53f. (App.).
'equanimity, equipoise, mental balance' (lit., 'remaining
here and there in the middle'), is the name for a high ethical
quality belonging to the sankhára-kkhandha (s. khandha)
and is mostly known by the name upekkhá. In its widest
sense it is associated with all pure consciousness (s. Tab.
II). "Tatra-majjhattatá is called the 'keeping in
the middle of all things'. It has as charactcristic that it
effects the balance of consciousness and mental factors; as
nature (function; rasa), that it prevents excessiveness
and deficiency, or that it puts an end to partiality; as manifestation,
that it keeps the proper middle" (Vis.M. XIV). (App.).
'the Thirty-thrce (Gods)', a class of heavenly beings in
the sensuous sphere; s. deva (I).
'practice of the three-rober', is one of the ascetical means
for purificaton (dhutanga, q.v.).
'fire-element, heat-element'; s. dhátu.
'fire-kasina', is one of the 10 kasina exercises; s. kasina.
utu (q.v.). - For corporeality produced by temperature,
awareness of: one of the insight-knowledges; s. visuddhi
'one endowed with the threefold (higher) knowledge'. In
Brahmanism means 'knower of the 3 Vedas' ( tri-vidyá), in
Buddhism means one who has realised 3 kinds of knowledge, to
wit: remembrance of former rebirths, the divine eye, extinction
of all cankers. For details, s. abhiññá, 4-6. Cf. Tevijjá
Sutta, D. 13 (WHEEL 57/58).
'Doctrine of the Elders', is a name of the oldest form of
the Buddha's teachings, handed down to us in the Páli language.
According to tradition, its name is derived from the fact of
having been fixed by 500 holy Elders of the Order, soon after
the death of the Master.
is the only one of the old schools of Buddhism that has survived
among those which Maháyánists have called 'Hinayána'. It is
sometimes called Southern Buddhism or Páli Buddhism. It is found
today in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Chittagong
(East Bengal. ) - Cf. Guide, p. 60. - (App.). thína-middha:
'sloth and torpor', constitute the 3rd of the 5 hindrances
(nívarana, q.v.). They may or may not, be associated
with greedy consciousness (s. Tab. 23. 25, 27, 29 and II).
wisdom based on: cintámayapaññá: s. paññá.
-samádhi, -paññá: 'static morality, static concentration,
static wisdom'; s. hána-bhágiya-síla.
thought-conception: s. vitakka.
Right: sammá-sankappa; .s. sacca, magga.
the 4: gantha (q.v.).
the '3 charactcristies of existence', or signata, are impermanency
(anicca, q.v.), suffcring or misery (dukkha, q.v.;
s. sacca, dukkhatá), not-self (anattá, q.v.).
Perfect Ones appear in the world, or whether Perfect Ones do
not appear in the world, it still remains a firm condition,
an immutable fact and fixed law: that all formations are impermanent,
that all formations are subject to suffering, that everything
is without a self'' (A. III, 134).
do you think, o monks: Is corporeality (rúpa) permanent
or impermanent? - Impermanent, o Venerable One. - Are feeling
(vedaná), perception (saññá), mental formations
(sankhára) and consciousness (viññána), permanent
or impermanent? - Impermanent, o Venerable One.
that which is impermanent, is it something pleasant or painful?
- It is painful, o Venerable One.
of what is impermanent, painful and subject to change, could
it be rightly said, 'This belongs to me, this am I, this is
my ego'? - No, Venerable One.
whatever there is of corporeality, feeling, perception, mental
formations and consciousness, whether past, present or future,
one's own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or
near, of all these things one should understand, according to
reality and true wisdom: 'This does not belong to me, this am
I not, this is not my ego' " (S. XXII, 59).
one who understands eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and all the
remaining formations as impermanent, painful and not-self, in
him the fetters (samyojana, q.v.) are dissolved"
(S. XXXV, 53).
is the full comprehension of the 3 characteristics by direct
meditative experience which constitutes liberating insight.
About their relation to the three gateways ot liberation', s.
vimokkha I .
further details, s. anicca, dukkha, anattá, vipassaná.
The Three Signata, by Prof. O. H. de A. Wijesekera (WHEEL
20). - The Three Basic Facts of Existence: I-III (WHEEL
BPS), Vis.M. XX, 13ff. 18ff; XXI, 47f, 67f.
' T he Three Bascets', is the name for the 3 main divisions
of the Páli Canon: the Basket of Discipline (Vinaya Pitaka),
the Basket of Discourses (Sutta Pitaka) and the Basket ot Philosophy
'low talk', lit. 'beastly talk', is the name in the sutta-texts
for the following: "Talk about kings and robbers, ministers
and armies, danger and war, eating and drinking, clothes and
dwellings, garlands and scents, relations, chariots, villages
and markets, towns and districts, women and heroes, street talks,
talks by the well, talk about those departed in days gone by,
tittle-tattle, talks about world and sea, about gain and loss"
(A.X, 69 etc.).
the commentaries 4 further kinds are enumerated, thus bringing
the number to 32, as mostly counted, namely: talk about sensuous
enjoyment, self-mortification, eternity and self-annihilation.
'animal womb'; birth as animal. The animal kingdom belongs
to the sensuous world (s. loka), is one of the 4 lower
worlds (s. apáya) and one of the 3 woeful courses of
existence (s. gati).
'full understanding by investigating'; s. pariññá.
'Three Jewels' or Three Gems, which by all Buddhists are
revered as the most venerable things, are the Buddha, the Dhamma
and the Holy Sangha.' i.e.: the Enlightened One; the law of
deliverance discovered, realized and proclaimed by him; and
the Community of Holy Disciples and those who live in accordance
with the Law. - The contemplations of the 3 Jewels belong to
the 10 contemplations (anussati q.v.).
'Threefold Refuge', in which every faithful adherent of
the Buddha puts his whole trust, consists in the Buddha, the
Dhamma and the Sangha (s. prec.).
Buddha, or Enlightened One, is the teacher who by himself has
discovered, realized and proclaimed to the world the law of
deliverance. The Dhamma is the law of deliverance. The Sangha
is the community of the disciples, who have realized or are
striving to realize the law of deliverance.
3-fold Refuge in Páli, by the uttering of which one may also
outwardly profess one's faith, is still the same as in the Buddha's
take my refuge in the Buddha!
take my refuge in the Dhamma!
take my refuge in the Sangha!
The Threefold Refuge by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 76). -
Devotion in Buddhism (WHEEL 18). Going for Refuge, by Bhikkhu
Bodhi (WHEEL 282/284) - Khp. Tr. pp. 4ff.
the 3 'articles of (heretical) belief'. which in A. III,
61 are declared as leading to inactivity, are: (1) the belief
that all happiness and woe are produced through former karma
(prenatal actions; s. karma); (2) that everything is uncaused;
(3) that everything is created by God.
is the teaching of Niggantha-Náthaputta, the leader of the Nigganthas,
the modern Jains. The fault with this doctrine is that it does
not account for that happiness and woe which either are the
result of the present life's good or bad action, or are associated
with the corresponding action. (2) is the doctrine of Makkhali
Gosála; s. ditthi.
to the above 3 doctrines, man is not responsible for his actions,
so that all moral exertions become useless.
thína, s. thína-middha (q.v.).
the 3-fold: sikkhá (q.v.). - The steps of: sikkhápada,
(of mind): s. samatha, samatha-vipassaná, bhávaná, bojjhanga.
- 'One who has taken t. as his vehicle': samathayánika
Overcoming (of defilements) by way of: s. pahána.
of merit: patti-dána (q.v.).
power of: s. iddhi.
the 7: s. dhana (q.v.).
Living under a tree is one of the ascetical practices (dhutanga,
the 4 Noble: sacca (q.v.). - 2-fold knowledge of
the t.; s. saccañána.
away, contemplation of the: vivattanupassaná; s.
a class of heavenly beings in the sensuous plane; s. deva
miracle: yamaka-pátiháriya (q.v.).