Buddhist Dictionary



sabba-loke anabhirati-saññá: 'contemplation on disinterestedness regarding the whole world', described in A. X., 60 in the following words: "If, Ananda, the monk gives up his tenacious clinging to the world, his firm grasping and his biases and inclinations of the mind, and turns away from these things, does not cling to them, this, Ananda, is called the contemplation on disinterestedness regarding the whole world."

sabbúpadhi-patinissagga: s. upadhi.

sacca: 'Truth'. - 1. On the 'two truths', conventional and ultimale, see paramattha.

2. 'The Four Noble Truths' (ariya-sacca) are the briefest synthesis of the entire teachings of Buddhism, since all those manifold doctrines of the threefold canon are, without any exception, included therein. They are: the truth of suffering, of the origin of suffering, of the extinction of suffering, and of the Eightfold Path leading to the extinction of suffering.

I. The 1st truth, briefly stated, teaches that all forms of existence whatsoever are unsatisfactory and subject to suffering (dukkha).

II. The 2nd truth teaches that all suffering, and all rebirth, is produced by craving (tanhá).

III. The 3rd truth teaches that extinction of craving necessarily results in extinction (nirodha) of rebirth and suffering, i.e. nibbána (q.v.).

IV. The 4th truth of the Eightfold Path (magga) indicates the means by which this extinction is attained.

The stereotype text frequently recurring in the Sutta Pitaka, runs as follows:

I. "But what, o monks, is the noble truth of suffering? Birth is suffering, decay is suffering, death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair are suffering; in short, the 5 groups of existence connected with clinging are suffering (cf. dukkha, dukkhata).

II. ''But what, o monks, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering? It is that craving which gives rise to fresh rebirth and, bound up with lust and greed, now here, now there, finds ever fresh delight. It is the sensual craving (káma-tanhá), the craving for existence (bhava-tanhá), the craving for non-existence or self-annihilation (vibhava-tanhá).

III. "But what, o monks, is the noble truth of the extinction of suffering? It is the complete fading away and extinction of this craving, its forsaking and giving up, liberation and detachment from it.

IV. "But what, o monks, is the noble truth of the path leading to the extinction of suffering? It is the Noble Eightfold Path (ariya-atthangika-magga) that leads to the extinction of suffering, namely:


1. Right view (sammá-ditthi)

2. Right thought (sammá-sankappa)

III. Wisdom (paññá)

3. Right speech (sammá-vácá)

4. Right action (sammá-kammanta)

5. Right livelihood (sammd-djiva)


I. Morality (síla)

6. Right effort (sammá-váyáma)

7. Right mindfulness (sammá-sati)

8. Right concentration (sammá-samádhi)


II. Concentration (samádhi)



1. "What now, o monks, is right view (or right understanding)? It is the understanding of suffering, of the origin of suffering, of the extinction of suffering, and of the path leading to the extinction of suffering.

2. "What now, o monks, is right thought? It is a mind free from sensual lust, ill-will and cruelty.

3. "What now, o monks, is right speech? Abstaining from lying, tale-bearing, harsh words, and foolish babble (cf. tiracchánakathá).

4. "What now, o monks, is right action? Abstaining from injuring living beings, from stealing and from unlawful sexual intercourse (s. kámesu micchácára).

5. "What now, o monks, is right livelihood? If the noble disciple rejects a wrong living, and gains his living by means of right livelihood (s. magga, 5).

6. "What now, o monks, is right effort? If the disciple rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, demeritorious things that have not yet arisen; ... if he rouses his will to overcome the evil, demeritorious things that have already arisen; ... if he rouses his will to produce meritorious things that have not yet arisen; ... if he rouses his will to maintain the meritorious things that have already arisen and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development; he thus makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives (s. padhána).

7. "What now, o monks is right mindfulness? If the disciple dwells in contemplation of corporeality ... of feeling ... of mind ... of the mind-objects, ardent, clearly conscious, and mindful after putting away worldly greed and grief (s. satipatthána).

8. "What now, o monks, is right concentration? If the disciple is detached from sensual objects, detached from unwholesome things, and enters into the first absorption ... the second absorption ... the third absorption ... the fourth absorption" (s. jhána).

In the Buddha's first sermon, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, it is said that the first truth (suffering) is to be fully understood; the second truth (craving) to be abandoned; the third truth (Nibbána) to be realized; the fourth truth (the path) to be cultivated.

"The truth of suffering is to be compared with a disease, the truth of the origin of suffering with the cause of the disease, the truth of extinction of suffering with the cure of the disease, the truth of the path with the medicine" (Vis.M. XVI).

In the ultimate sense, all these 4 truths are to be considered as empty of a self, since there is no feeling agent, no doer, no liberated one. no one who follows along the path. Therefore it is said:

'Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found.

The deed is, but no doer of the deed is there.

Nibbána is, but not the man that enters it.

The path is, but no traveller on it is seen.


'The first truth and the second truth are empty

Of permanency, joy, of self and beauty;

The Deathless Realm is empty of an ego,

And free from permanency, joy and self, the path.'

(Vis.M. XVI)


It must be pointed out that the first truth does not merely refer to actual suffering, i.e. to suffering as feeling, but that it shows that, in consequence of the universal law of impermanency, all the phenomena of existence whatsoever, even the sublimest states of existence, are subject to change and dissolution, and hence are miserable and unsatisfactory; and that thus, without exception, they all contain in themselves the germ of suffering. Cf. Guide, p. 101f.

Regarding the true nature of the path, s. magga.

Literature: Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (in WHEEL 17 and BODHI LEAVES); M. 141; Sacca-Samyutta (S. LVI); Sacca Vibhanga; W. of B.; Vis.M. XVI: The Four Noble Truths by Francis Story (WHEEL 34/35); The Significance of the 4 Noble Truths by V. F. Gunaratna (WHEEL 123).

sacca-ñána: 'knowledge of the truth' (s. prec.), may be of 2 kinds: (1) knowledge consisting in understanding (anubodha-ñána) and (2) knowledge consisting in penetration (pativedha-ñána), i.e. realization. Cf. pariyatti.

"Amongst these, (1) 'knowledge consisting in understanding' is mundane (lokiya, q.v.), and its arising with regard to the extinction of suffering, and to the path, is due to hearsay etc. (therefore not due to one's realization of the supermundane path; s. ariya-puggala) (2) 'Knowledge consisting in penetration', however, is supermundane (lokuttara), with the extinction of suffering (= nibbána) as object, it penetrates with its functions the 4 truths (in one and the same moment), as it is said (S. LVI, 30): whosoever, o monks, understands suffering, he also understands the origin of suffering, the extinction of suffering, and the path leading to the extinction of suffering' " (Vis.M. XVI, 84). See visuddhi (end of article).

"Of the mundane kinds of knowledge, however, the knowledge of suffering by which (various) prejudices are overcome, dispels the personality-belief (sakkáya-dilthi, s. ditthi). The knowledge of the origin of suffering dispels the annihilation-view (uccheda-ditthi, s. ditthi); the knowledge of extinction of suffering, the eternity-view (sassata-ditthi, s. ditthi); the knowledge of the path, the view of inefficacy of action (akiriya-ditthi, s. ditthi)" (Vis.M. XVI, 85).

saccánulomika-ñána: anuloma-ñána (q.v.), puthujjana.

sacchikaraníyá dhammá: 'things to be realized'. Recollection of former states of existence is to be realized through remembrance (abhiññá 4; q.v.). The vanishing and reappearing of beings is to be realized through the divine eye (abhiññá 5; q.v.). The 8 deliverances (vimokkha, q.v.) are to be realized through the mental group (káya, here feeling, perception, mental formations; s. káya). The extinction of cankers is to be realized through insight (vipassaná).

saddhá: faith, confidence. A Buddhist is said to have faith if "he believes in the Perfect One's (the Buddha's) Enlightenment" (M 53; A.V, 2), or in the Three Jewels (s. ti-ratana), by taking his refuge in them (s. ti-sarana). His faith, however, should be "reasoned and rooted in understanding" (ákáravatá saddhá dassanamúlika; M. 47), and he is asked to investigate and test the object of his faith (M. 47, 95). A Buddhist's faith is not in conflict with the spirit of inquiry, and "doubt about dubitable things" (A. II, 65; S. XLII, 13) is admitted and inquiry into them is encouraged. The 'faculty of faith' (saddhindriya) should be balanced with that of wisdom (paññindriya; s. indriya-samatta). It is said: "A monk who has understanding, establishes his faith in accordance with that understanding" (S. XLVIII, 45). Through wisdom and understanding, faith becomes an inner certainty and firm conviction based on one's own experience.

Faith is called the seed (Sn. v. 77) of all wholesome states because, according to commentarial explanations, it inspires the mind with confidence (okappana, pasáda) and determination (adhimokkha), for 'launching out' (pakkhandhana; s. M. 122) to cross the flood of samsára.

Unshakable faith is attained on reaching the first stage of holiness, 'stream-entry' (sotápatti, s. ariyapuggala), when the fetter of sceptical doubt (vicikicchá; s. samyojana) is eliminated. Unshakable confidence (avecca-pasáda) in the Three Jewels is one of the characteristic qualities of the Stream-winner (sotápannassa angáni, q.v.).

Faith is a mental concomitant, present in all karmically wholesome, and its corresponding neutral, consciousness (s. Tab. II). It is one of the 4 streams of merit (puññadhárá, q.v.), one of the 5 spiritual faculties (indriya, q.v.), spiritual powers (bala, q.v.), elements of exertion (padhániyanga, q.v.) and one of the 7 treasures (dhana, q.v.).

See Faith in the Buddha's Teaching, by Soma Thera (WHEEL 262). "Does Saddhá mean Faith?'' by Ñánamoli Thera (in WHEEL 52/53).

saddhánusári and saddhá-vimutta: the 'faith-devoted and the 'faith-liberated', are two of the 7 kinds of noble disciples (s. ariya-puggala, B.).

sagga: 'heaven'; s. deva (heavenly heings).

sahajáta-paccaya: 'co-nascence', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

sahetuka-citta: s. hetu.

sakadágámí: the 'Once-returner': s. ariya-puggala, A.

sakka: the 'King of Gods' (devánam-inda), is the lord over the celestial beings in the heaven of the Thirty-Three' (távatimsa, s. deva).

sakkáya: 'existing group'. 'this word is usually translated by 'personality', but according to the commentaries it corresponds to sat-káya, 'existing group', hence not to Sanskrit sva-káya, 'own group' or 'own body'. In the suttas (e.g. M. 44) it is said to be a name for the 5 groups of existence (khandha): "Sakkáya, o Brother Visákha, is said by the Blessed One to be a name for the 5 'groups as objects of clinging' (upádána-kkhandha), to wit: corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations, and consciousness." - See foll.

sakkáya-ditthi: 'personality-belief', is the first of the 10 fetters (samyojana). It is entirely abandoned only on reaching the path of Stream-winning (sotápatti-magga; s. ariya-puggala). There are 20 kinds of personality-belief, which are obtained by applying 4 types of that belief to each of the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.): (1-5) the belief to be identical with corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations or consciousness; (6-10) to be contained in them; (11-15) to be independent of them; (16-20) to be the owner of them (M. 44; S. XXII. 1). See prec., ditthi, upádána 4.

saláyatana: the '6 bases' (of mental activity); s. áyatana, paticcasamuppáda.

samádhi: 'concentration'; lit. 'the (mental) state of being firmly fixed' (sam+á+Ö há), is the fixing of the mind on a single object. "One-pointedness of mind (cittass' ekaggatá), Brother Visakha, this is called concentration" (M. 44). Concentration - though often very weak - is one of the 7 mental concomitants inseparably associated with all consciousness. Cf. náma, cetaná.

Right concentration (sammá-samádhi), as the last link of the 8-fold Path (s. magga), is defined as the 4 meditative absorptions (jhána, q.v.). In a wider sense, comprising also much weaker states of concentration, it is associated with all karmically wholesome (kusala) consciousness. Wrong concentration (micchá-samádhi) is concentration associated with all karmically unwholesome (akusala, q.v.) consciousness. Wherever in the texts this term is not differentiated by 'right' or 'wrong', there 'right' concentration is meant .

In concentration one distinguishes 3 grades of intensity:

(1) 'Preparatory concentration' (parikamma-samádhi) existing at the beginning of the mental exercise.

(2) 'Neighbourhood concentration' (upacára-samádhi), i.e. concentration 'approaching' but not yet attaining the 1st absorption (jhána, q.v.), which in certain mental exercises is marked by the appearance of the so-called 'counter-image' (patibhága-nimitta).

(3) 'Attainment concentration' (appaná-samádhi), i.e. that concentration which is present during the absorptions. (App.)

Further details, s. bhávana, Vis.M. III and Fund. IV.

Concentration connected with the 4 noble path-moments (magga), and fruition-moments (phala), is called supermundane (lokuttara), having Nibbána as object. Any other concentration, even that of the sublimest absorptions is merely mundane (lokiya, q.v.).

According to D. 33, the development of concentration (samádhi-bhávaná) may procure a 4-fold blessing: (1) present happiness through the 4 absorptions; (2) knowledge and vision (ñána-dassana) - here probably identical with the 'divine eye' (s. abhiññá) through perception of light (kasina); (3) mindfulness and clear comprehension through the clear knowledge of the arising, persisting and vanishing of feelings, perceptions and thoughts; (4) extinction of all cankers (ásavakkhaya) through understanding the arising and passing away of the 5 groups forming the objects of clinging (s. khandha).

Concentration is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), one of the 5 spiritual faculties and powers (s. bala), and the last link of the 8-fold Path. In the 3-fold division of the 8-fold Path (morality, concentration and wisdom), it is a collective name for the three last links of the path (s. sikkhá).

samádhi-parikkhára: 'means, or requisites of concentration', are the 4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthána q.v.). See M. 44.

samádhi-samápatti-kusalatá, -thiti-kusalatá, -utthánakusalatá: skilfulness in entering into concentration, in remaining in it, and in rising from it. Cf. S.XXXIV, llff.

samádhi-sambojjhanga: 'concentration as factor of enlightenment' (s. bojjhanga).

samádhi-vipphárá iddhi: the 'power of penetrating concentration', is one of the magical faculties (iddhi, q.v.).

samanantara-paccaya: 'contiguity', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

sámañña-phala; the 'fruits of monkhood', is the name of a famous sutta (D. 2) and also, according to D. 33, a name for the 4 supermundane fruitions: Stream-entrance, Once-return, Non-return, and Perfect Holiness (s. ariya-puggala).

samápatti: 'attainments', is a name for the 8 absorptions of the fine-material and immaterial spheres to which occasionally is added as 9th attainment, attainment of extinction (nirodhasamápatti) Cf. jhána.

sama-sísí: one 'who attains two ends simultaneously', namely: the extinction of cankers and the end of life (s. Pug. 19). In A. VIII, 6 it is said: "Such is the case with a monk who dwells in the contemplation of impermanency of all forms of existence, keeping before his eyes their impermanency, perceiving their impermanency, perseveringly, steadfastly, undisturbed, of firm mind, wisely absorbed; and in whom at one and the same time the extinction of cankers and the end of like take place." (App.)

samatha: 'tranquillity', serenity, is a synonym of samádhi (coneentration), cittekaggatá (one-pointedness of mind) and avikkhepa (undistractedness). It is one of the mental factors in 'wholesome consciousness. Cf. foll. and bhávaná.

samatha-vipassaná: 'tranquillity and insight', are identical with concentration (samádhi, q.v.; s. prec.) and wisdom (paññá, q.v.), and form the two branches of mental development (bhávaná, q.v.).

(1) 'Tranquillity' is all unperturbed, peaceful and lucid state of mind attained by strong mental concentration. Though as a distinct way of practice (s. samatha-yánika), it aims at the attainment of the meditative absorptions (jhána, q.v.), a high degree of tranquil concentration (though not necessarily that of the absorptions) is indispensable for insight too. Tranquillity frees the mind from impurities and inner obstacles, and gives it greater penetrative strength.

''What now is the power of tranquillity (samatha-bala)? It is the one-pointedness and non-distraction of the mind due to freedom from desire (renunciation) ... to freedom from ill-will ... to the perception of light (s. aloka-saññá) ... to non-distraction ... to the defilling of phenomena ... to knowledge, gladness, the 8 attainments, the 10 kasinas, the 10 recollections, the 9 cemetery contemplations, the 32 kinds of respiration-mindfulness ... the one-pointedness and non-distraction of the mind of one contemplating abandonment (relinquishment) while inhaling and exhaling (s. ánápánasati).

"The power of tranquillity consists of the freedom from perturbation; in the 1st absorption, from the 5 hindrances (nívarana, (q.v.); in the 2nd absorption, from thought-conception and discursive thinking; ... in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception it consists of the freedom from perturbation by the perception of the sphere of nothingness (s. anupubbanirodha), which is no longer agitated and irritated by defilements associated with restlessness, nor by the groups of existence" (Pts.M. 1. p. 97)

(2) 'Insight' (s. vipassaná) is the penetrative understanding by direct meditative experience of the impermanency, unsatisfactoriness and impersonality of all material and mental phenomena of existence. It is insight that leads to entrance into the supermundance states of holiness and to final liberation.

''What now is the power of insight? It is the contemplation of impermanency (aniccánupassaná), of misery (dukkhanupassaná), impersonality' (anattánupassaná), of aversion (nibbidanupassaná), detachment (viráganupassaná), extinction (nirodha), ahandonment (patinissagga), with regard to corporcality, feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness.... That in contemplating the impermanency one is no more agitated by the idea of grasping ... no more by ignorance and the defilements associated therewith and no more by the groups of existence: this is called the power of insight" (Pts.M. p. 97).

"Two things are conducive to knowledge: tranquillity and insight. If tranquillity is developed, what profit does it bring? The mind is developed. If the mind is developed, what profit does it bring? All lust is abandoned.

"If insight is developed, what profit does it bring? Wisdom is developed. If wisdom is developed, what profit does it bring? All ignorance is abandoned" (A. II, 2.7).

There is a method of meditative practice where, in alternating sequence, tranquillity-meditation and insight-meditation are developed. It is called 'tranquillity and insight joined in pairs' (samatha-vipassanáyuganaddha), the coupling or yoking of tranquillity and insight. He who undertakes it, first enters into the 1st absorption. After rising from it, he contemplates the mental phenomena that were present in it (feeling, perception, etc.) as impermanent, painful and not-self, and thus he develops insight. Thereupon he enters into the 2nd absorption; and after rising from it, he again considers its constituent phenomena as impermanent, etc. In this way, he passes from one absorption to the next, until at last, during a moment of insight, the intuitive knowledge of the path (of Stream-entry, etc.) flashes forth - See A. IV, 170; A.IX, 36; Pts: Yuganaddha Kathá.

samatha-yánika: 'one who takes tranquillity as his vehicle'. This is a name for a person who not only has reached insight but also one or the other of the absorptions, to distinguish him from one 'who practises only insight' (sukkha-vipassaka, q.v.).

sambodhi = bodhi (q.v.).

sambojjhanga = bojjhanga (q.v.).

sammá-ditthi, -sankappa, -vaca, etc: see magga.

sammá-magga: see micchá-magga.

sammá-ppadhána: 'right exertion', is identical with the 6th link of the 8-fold path (s. magga, padhána).

sammá-sambodhi: 'Perfect Enlightenment', Universal Buddhahood, is the state attained by a Universal Buddha (sammá-sambuddha), i.e. one by whom the liberating law (dhamma) which had become lost to the world, has again been discovered, realized and clearly proclaimed to the world.

"Now, someone, in things never heard before, understands by himself the truth, and he therein attains omniscience, and gains mastery in the powers. Such a one is called a Universal Buddha, or Enlightened One" (Pug. 29).

The doctrine characteristie of all the Buddhas, and each time rediscovered by them and fully explained to the world, consists in the 4 Truths (sacca, q.v.) of suffering, its origin, its extinction and the way to its extinction (s. magga). See bodhi.

sammasana: 'comprehension', exploring, 'determining' (vavatthána, q.v.) is a name for the determining of all phenomena of existence as impermanent, miserable and impersonal (anicca, dukkha, anattá), etc., which is the beginning of insight (s. Pts.M. I, p. 53; Vis.M. XX); also called kalápa-s. (q.v.), 'comprehension by groups (of existence - khandha).' (App.).

sammatta: the 'state of rightness', are the 8 links of the 8-fold Path (D. 33). Cf. micchátta.

sammuti-sacca: 'conventional truth', is identical with vohára-sacca (s. paramattha-sacca).

sampadá: 'attainment, blessing'. The 5 blessings are said to be faith, morality, learning, liberality, wisdom (A. V, 91). Further: morality, concentration, wisdom, deliverance, the eye of knowledge connected with deliverance (A. V, 92).

sampajañña: 'clarity of consciousness', clear comprehension. This term is frequently met with in combination with mindfulness (sati). In D. 22, M. 10 it is said: "Clearly conscious is he in going and coming, clearly conscious in looking forward and backward, clearly conscious in bending and stretching his body; clearly conscious in eating, drinking, chewing and tasting, clearly conscious in discharging excrement and urine; clearly conscious in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep and awakening; clearly conscious in speaking and keeping silent." - For a definition of the term sati-sampajañña, s. Pug. 86.

According to the Com., 'clarity of consciousness' is of 4 kinds: regarding the purpose, the suitability, (inclusion in the meditative) domain, and the undeluded conception of the activity concerned. Explained in detail in Com. to Satipatthána Sutta. (tr. in The Way of Mindfulness, by Soma Thera; BPS).

sampaticchana-citta: 'receptive consciousness', is the mindelement (mano-dhátu) that follows immediately upon the arising of sense-consciousness (visual consciousness, etc.), performing on that occasion the function of recciving the sense-object. Regarding the other functions of consciousness, s. viññána-kicca.

sampayutta-paccaya: 'condition of association', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

samphassa = phassa (q.v.).

samsára: 'round of rebirth', lit. perpetual wandering', is a name by which is designated the sca of life ever restlessly heaving up and down, the symbol of this continuous process of ever again and again being born, growing old, suffering and dying. More precisely put, samsára is the unbroken chain of the five-fold khandha-combinations, which, constantly changing from moment to moment follow continuously one upon the other through inconceivable periods of time. Of this samsára, a single lifetime constitutes only a tiny and fleeting fraction; hence to be able to comprehend the first noble truth of universal suffering, one must let one's gaze rest upon the samsára, upon this frightful chain of rebirths, and not merely upon one single life-time, which, of course, may be sometimes less painful. - Cf. tilakkhana, anattá, paramattha, patisandhi.

samseva: 'companionship'. (1) "Through companionship with bad men (asappurisa-s.) comes listening to bad advice, thereby unwise reflection, thereby inattention and mental confusion, thereby lack of sense-control, thereby 3-fold bad conduct in bodily action, speech and mind, thereby the 5 hindrances (nívarana, q.v.), thereby craving for existence. (2) Through companionship with good men (sappurisa-s. ) comes listening to good advice, thereby faith, thereby wise reflection, thereby mindfulness and clarity of consciousness, thereby sense-control, thereby 3-fold good conduct, thereby the 4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthána, q.v ), thereby the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), thereby liberation through wisdom (paññá-vimutti, q.v.)." Cf. A. X 62.

samuccheda-pahána: 'overcoming by destruction', is the absolute extinction of certain fetters of existence (samyojana, q.v.), which takes place by entering into one of the 4 supermundane paths of holiness (s. ariya-puggala). - Regarding the 5 kinds of overcoming, s. pahána.

samudaya-sacca: 'truth of the origin', i.e. the origin of suffering, is the 2nd of the 4 Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.).

samutthána: 'origination'. There are 4 kinds of origination of corporeal phenomena, namely: through karma, consciousness, temperature, nutriment. For example, 'karma-produced' (kamma-s. = kammaja, karma-born) are the sense organs, sexual characteristics, etc., which, according to their nature, are conditioned either through wholesome or unwholesome karma formations (volitional actions; s. paticcasamuppáda, 2) in a previous existence. 'Mindproduced', i.e. consciousness-produced (citta-samutthána = cittaja) are bodily and verbal expression (viññatti, q.v.). For a detailed exposition, see Vis.M. XX. - (App.).

samvara-padhána: 'effort to avoid'; s. padhána.

samvara-síla: 'indriya-s.'; s. síla.

samvara-suddhi: 'purity of control', is another name for morality consisting of restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara-síla; s. síla).

samvatta-kappa: s. kappa.

samvega-vatthu: 'the sources of emotion', or of a sense of urgency, are 8: "birth, old age, disease, death, being 4; the suffering in the lower states of existence being the 5th; further, the misery of the past rooted in the cycle of rebirth, the misery of the future rooted in the cycle of rebirth, the misery of the present rooted in the search after food" (Vis.M. III.).

samvejaníya-tthána: 'places rousing emotion', are 4: the place where the Perfect One was born, (i.e. the Lumbini-grove near Kapilavatthu, at the present frontier of Nepal); the place where he reached Full Enlightenment (i.e. Uruvela, the modern Ureli, and Buddhagayá, on the Nerañjara-river; the modern Lilanja); the place where he, for the first time, unveiled the Dhamma to the world (i.e. the deer-park at Isipatana near Benares); the place where he entered the final Nibbána (i.e. Kusinára). (A. IV, 118).

samyojana: 'fetters'. There are 10 fetters tying beings to the wheel of existence, namely: (1) personality-belief (sakkáya-ditthi, q.v.), (2) sceptical doubt (vicikicchá q.v.), (3) clinging to mere rules and ritual (sílabbata-parámása; s. upádána), (4) sensuous craving (káma-rága, 4.v.), (5) ill-will (vyápáda), (6) craving for fine-material existence (rúpa-rága), (7) craving for immaterial existence (arúpa-rága), (8) conceit (mána, q.v.), (9) restlessness (uddhacca, q.v.), (10) ignorance (avijjá, q.v.). The first five of these are called 'lower fetters' (orambhágiya-samyojana), as they tie to the sensuous world. The latter 5 are called 'higher fetters' (uddhambhágiya-samyojana), as they tie to the higher worlds, i.e. the fine-material and immaterial world (A. IX, 67, 68; X. 13; D . 33, etc.).

He who is free from 1-3 is a Sotápanna, or Stream-winner, i.e. one who has entered the stream to Nibbána, as it were. He who, besides these 3 fetters, has overcome 4 and 5 in their grosser form, is called a Sakadágámi, a 'Once-returner' (to this sensuous world). He who is fully freed from 1-5 is an Anágámí, or 'Non-returner' (to the sensuous world). He who is freed from all the 10 fetters is called an Arahat, i.e. a perfectly Holy One.

For more details, s. ariya-puggala.

The 10 fetters as enumerated in the Abhidhamma, e.g. Vibh. XVII, are: sensuous craving, ill-will, conceit, wrong views, sceptical doubt, clinging to mere rules and ritual, craving for existence, envy, stinginess, ignorance.

sañcetaná = cetaná, q.v.

sangaha-vatthu: the 4 'ways of showing favour' are liberality, kindly speech, beneficial actions, impartiality (A. IV, 32; VIII, 24).

sangha (lit.: congregation), is the name for the Community of Buddhist monks. As the third of the Three Gems or Jewels (ti-ratana, q.v.) and the Three Refuges (ti-sarana, q.v.), i.e. Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, it applies to the ariya-sangha, the community of the saints, i.e. the 4 Noble Ones (ariya-pugga, q.v.), the Stream-winner, etc.

sankappa: 'thought', is a synonym of vitakka (q.v.). For sammá-s., or right thought, s. magga (2).

sankhára: This term has, according to its context, different shades of meaning, which should be carefully distinguished.

(I) To its most frequent usages (s. foll. 1-4) the general term 'formation' may be applied, with the qualifications required by the context. This term may refer either to the act of 'forming or to the passive state of 'having been formed' or to both.

1. As the 2nd link of the formula of dependent origination, (paticcasamuppáda, q.v.), sankhára has the active aspect, 'forming, and signifies karma (q.v.), i.e. wholesome or unwholesome volitional activity (cetaná) of body (káya-s.), speech (vací-s.) or mind (citta- or mano-s.). This definition occurs, e.g. at S. XII, 2, 27. For s. in this sense, the word 'karma-formation' has been coined by the author. In other passages, in the same context, s. is defined by reference to (a) meritorious karma-formations (puññ'ábhisankhára), (b) demeritorious k. (apuññ'abhisankhára), (c) imperturbable k. (áneñj'ábhisankhára), e.g. in S. XII, 51; D. 33. This threefold division covers karmic activity in all spheres of existence: the meritorious karma-formations extend to the sensuous and the fine-material sphere, the demeritorious ones only to the sensuous sphere, and the 'imperturbable' only to the immaterial sphere.

2. The aforementioned three terms, káya-, vací- and citta-s. are sometimes used in quite a different sense, namely as (1) bodily function, i.e. in-and-out-breathing (e.g. M. 10), (2) verbal function, i.e. thought-conception and discursive thinking, (3) mental-function, i.e. feeling and perception (e.g. M. 44). See nirodhasamápatti.

3. It also denotes the 4th group of existence (sankhárakkhandha), and includes all 'mental formations' whether they belong to 'karmically forming' consciousness or not. See khandha, Tab. II. and S. XXII, 56, 79.

4. It occurs further in the sense of anything formed (sankhata, q.v.) and conditioned, and includes all things whatever in the world, all phenomena of existence. This meaning applies, e.g. to the well-known passage, "All formations are impermanent... subject to suffering" (sabbe sankhára aniccá ... dukkhá). In that context, however, s. is subordinate to the still wider and all-embracing term dhamma (thing); for dhamma includes also the Unformed or Unconditioned Element (asankhata-dhátu), i.e. Nibbána (e.g. in sabbe dhammá anattá, "all things are without a self").

(II) Sankhára also means sometimes 'volitional effort', e.g. in the formula of the roads to power (iddhi-páda, q.v.); in sasankhára- and asankhára-parinibbáyí (s. anágámí, q.v.); and in the Abhidhamma terms asankhárika- (q.v.) and sasankhárika-citta, i.e. without effort = spontaneously, and with effort = prompted.

In Western literature, in English as well as in German, sankhára is sometimes mistranslated by 'subconscious tendencies' or similarly (e.g Prof Beckh: "unterbewußte Bildekräfte," i.e. subconscious formative forces). This misinterpretation derives perhaps from a similar usage in non-Buddhist Sanskrit literature, and is entirely inapplicable to the connotations of the term in Páli Buddhism, as listed above under I, 1-4. For instance, within the dependent origination, s. is neither subconscious nor a mere tendency, but is a fully conscious and active karmic volition. In the context of the 5 groups of existence (s. above I, 3), a very few of the factors from the group of mental formations (sankhárakkhandha) are also present as concomitants of subconsciousness (s. Tab. I-III), but are of course not restricted to it, nor are they mere tendencies.

sankhárupekkhá-ñána: the 'equanimity-knowledge with regard to the formations of existence', is one of those kinds of knowledge which form the 'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress' (s. visuddhi, VI, 8). "It is known by 3 names: in the lowest stage it is called 'knowledge consisting in the desire for deliverance' (rnuccitu-kamyatá-ñána); in the middle stage it is called the 'reflecting contemplation' (patisankhánupassanáñána); in the last stage, however, i.e. after attaining the summit, it is called the 'equanimity-knowledge with regard to the formations of existence' " (Vis.M. XXI).

sankhata: the 'formed', i.e. anything originated or conditioned, comprises all phenomena of existence. Cf. sankhára I, 4; asankhata.

sankhitta citta: in the Satipatthána Sutta, signifies the 'contracted' or 'cramped' mind, not the concentrated (samáhita) mind, as often translated by Western authors. Cf. Satipatthána (3).

saññá: 1. 'perception', is one of the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.), and one of the 7 mental factors (cetasika) that are inseparably bound up with all consciousness (s. cetaná). It is sixfold as perception of the 5 physical sense-objects and of mental objects. It is the awareness of an object's distinctive marks ("one perceives blue, yellow, etc.," S. XXII, 79). If, in repeated perception of an object, these marks are recognized, saññá functions as 'memory' (s. Abh. St., p. 68f.).

2. saññá stands sometimes for consciousness in its entirety, e.g. in n'eva-saññá-n'ásaññáyatana, 'the realm of neither-perception-nor- non-perception'; further, in asaññá-satta, 'unconscious beings'. In both cases reference is not to 'perception' alone, but also to all other constituents of consciousness. Cf. D. 9.

3. saññá may also refer to the 'ideas', which are objects of meditation, e.g. in a group of 7 ideas, of impermanence (anicca-s. ), etc. (A. VII, 46); of 10: impurity (asubha-s.), etc. (A. X, 56), and another set of 10 in A. X. 60; or to wrong notions, as in nicca-, subha-s. (the notion of permanence, beauty), etc.

saññá-vedayita-nirodha = nirodha-samápatti (q.v.).

saññá-vipallása: 'perversion of perception' (s. vipallása).

saññojana = samyojana (q.v.).

santána = santati: 'continuity', may refer to the continuity of consciousness (citta-s.), of the groups of existence (khandha-s.), of sub-consciousness (bhavanga-s.), of corporeality (rúpa-s.), to the uninterrupted continuity of the paticcasamuppáda (q.v.), etc. (App.).

santírana-citta: 'investigating consciousness', is one of the stages in the cognitive series. For the 14 functions of consciousness. s. viññánakicca.

santutthitá: 'contentedness'; s. ariya-vamsa.

sapadánik'anga: s. dhutanga.

sappatigha-rúpa: 'corporeality reacting to sense stimuli', refers to the 5 sense-organs (áyatana, q.v.). - Cf. Vibh. II (s. Guide II, Chap. II) and Vis.M. XIV; further s. patigha 2.

sarana: s. ti-sarana.

sásana (lit. 'message'): the Dispensation of the Buddha, the Buddhist religion; teaching, doctrine.

Navanga-Buddha (or satthu)-sásana, the ninefold Dispensation of the Buddha (or the Master) consists of suttas (sutta), mixed prose (geyya), exegesis (veyyákarana), verses (gáthá), solemn utterances (udána), sayings of the Blessed One (itivuttaka), birth stories (játaka), extraordinary things (abbhutadhamma), and analysis (vedalla). This classification is often found in the suttas (e.g. M. 22). According to the commentaries, also the Vinaya and the Abhidhamma Pitaka are comprised in that ninefold division (see Atthasálini Tr., I, 33). It is a classification according to literary styles, and not according to given texts or books.

sasankhára-parinibbáyí: 'one who reaches Nibbána with exertion', is a name of one of the 5 kinds of Non-returners (anágámí, q.v.).

sasankhárika-citta (in Dhs.: sasankhárena ): a prepared, or prompted. state of consciousness, arisen after prior deliberation (e.g. weighing of motives) or induced by others (command, advice, persuasion) - See Tab. I; exemplified in Vis.M. XIV, 84f. - Opposite: asankhárika-citta, q.v.

sassata-ditthi (-váda): 'eternity-belief', is the belief in a soul or personality existing independently of the 5 groups of existence, and continuing after death eternally, as distinguished from the 'annihilation-belief' (uccheda-ditthi), i.e. the belief in a personality falling at death a prey to absolute annihilation. For more details, s. ditthi.

sati: 'mindfulness', is one of the 5 spiritual faculties and powers (s. bala), one of the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), and the 7th link of the 8-fold Path (magga, q.v.), and is, in its widest sense, one of those mental factors inseparably associated with all karmically wholesome (kusala, q.v.) and karma-produced lofty (sobhana) consciousness (Cf. Tab. II). - For the 4 foundations of mindfulness s. foll.

satipatthána: the 4 'foundations of mindfulness', lit. 'awarenesses of mindfulness' (sati-upatthána), are: contemplation of body, feeling, mind and mind-objects. - For sati, s. prec.

A detailed treatment of this subject, so important for the practice of Buddhist mental culture, is given in the 2 Satipatthána Suttas (D. 22; M. 10), which at the start as well as the conclusion, proclaim the weighty words: "The only way that leads to the attainment of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to the end of pain and grief, to the entering of the right path, and to the realization of Nibbána is the 4 foundations of mindfulness."

After these introductory words, and upon the question which these 4 are, it is said that the monk dwells in contemplation of the body, the feelings, the mind, and the mind-objects, "ardent, clearly conscious and mindful, after putting away worldly greed and grief."

These 4 contemplations are in reality not to be taken as merely separate exercises, but on the contrary, at least in many cases, especially in the absorptions, as things inseparably associated with each other. Thereby the Satipathána Sutta forms an illustration of the way in which these 4 contemplations relating to the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.) simultaneously come to be realized, and finally lead to insight into the impersonality of all existence.

(1) The contemplation of the body (káyanupassaná) consists of the following exercises: mindfulness with regard to in-and-outbreathing (ánápánasati, q.v.), minding the 4 postures (iriyápatha, q.v.), mindfulness and clarity of consciousness (satisampajañña, q.v.), reflection on the 32 parts of the body (s. káyagatásati and asubha), analysis of the 4 physical elements (dhátuvavatthána, q.v.), cemetery meditations (sívathiká q.v.).

(2) All feelings (vedanánupassaná) that arise in the meditator he clearly perceives, namely: agreeable and disagreeable feeling of body and mind, sensual and super-sensual feeling, indifferent feeling .

(3) He further clearly perceives and understands any state of consciousness or mind (cittánupassaná), whether it is greedy or not, hateful or not, deluded or not, cramped or distracted, developed or undeveloped, surpassable or unsurpassable, concentrated or unconcentrated, liberated or unliberated.

(4) Concerning the mind-objects (dhammánupassaná), he knows whether one of the five hindrances (nívarana, q.v.) is present in him or not, knows how it arises, how it is overcome, and how in future it does no more arise. He knows the nature of each of the five groups (khandha, q.v.), how they arise, and how they are dissolved. He knows the 12 bases of all mental activity (áyatana q.v.): the eye and the visual object, the ear and the audible object, .. mind and mind-object, he knows the fetters (samyojana, q.v.) based on them, knows how they arise, how they are overcome, and how in future they do no more arise. He knows whether one of the seven factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.) is present in him or not, knows how it arises, and how it comes to full development. Each of the Four Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.) he understands according to reality.

The 4 contemplations comprise several exercises, but the Satipatthána should not therefore be thought of as a mere collection of meditation subjects, any one of which may be taken out and practised alone. Though most of the exercises appear also elsewhere in the Buddhist scriptures, in the context of this sutta they are chiefly intended for the cultivation of mindfulness and insight, as indicated by the repetitive passage concluding each section of the sutta (see below). The 4 contemplations cover all the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.), because mindfulness is meant to encompass the whole personality. Hence, for the full development of mindfulness, the practice should extend to all 4 types of contemplation, though not every single exercise mentioned under these four headings need be taken up. A methodical practice of Satipatthána has to start with one of the exercises out of the group 'contemplation of the body', which will serve as the primary and regular subject of meditation: The other exercises of the group and the other contemplatons are to be cultivated when occasion for them arises during meditation and in everyday life.

After cach contemplation it is shown how it finally leads to insight-knowledge: "Thus with regard to his own body he contemplates the body, with regard to the bodies of others he contemplates the body, with regard to both he contemplates the body. He beholds how the body arises and how it passes away, beholds the arising and passing away of the body. 'A body is there' (but no living being, no individual, no woman, no man, no self, nothing that belongs to a self; neither a person, nor anything belonging to a person; Com.): thus he has established his attentiveness as far as it serves his knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world.''

In the same way he contemplates feeling, mind and mind-objects.

In M. 118 it is shown how these four foundations of mindfulness may be brought about by the exercise of mindfulness on in-and-out breathing (ánápána-sati, q.v.).

Literature: The Way of Mindfullness, tr. of Sutta and Com., by Soma Thera (3rd ed; Kandy 1967, BPS). - The Heart of Buddhist Meditation, by Nyanaponika Thera (3rd ed.; London. Rider & Co.). The Foundations of Mindfulness (tr. of M. 10), Nyanasatta Thera (Wheel 19). The Satipatthána Sutta and its Application to Modern Life, V. F. Gunaratna (WHEEL 60). - The Power of Mindfulness by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 121/122).

sati-sambojjhanga: 'mindfulness as factor of enlightenment' s. bojjhanga.

sati-sampajañña: 'mindfulness and clarity of consciousness, s. sampajañña.

satta: 'living being'. This term, just like attá, puggala, jíva, and all the other terms denoting 'ego-entity', is to be considered as a merely conventional term (vohára-vacana), not possessing any reality-value. For the impersonality of all existence. s. anattá, paramattha, puggala, jíva, satta, paticcasamuppáda.

sattakkhattu-parama: 'one wth only 7 further rebirths at the utmost', is one of the 3 kinds of Stream-winners (sotápanna, q.v.).

sattávása, nava: 'abodes of beings'. In the sutta-texts (e.g. D. 33; A.IX, 24) 9 such abodes are mentioned:

"There are, o monks, 9 abodes of beings, namely:

(1) "There are beings who are different in body and different in perception, such as the human beings, some heavenly beings, and some beings living in the world of suffering (vinipátika, q.v.).

(2) ''There are beings who are different in body but equal in perception, such as the first-born gods of the Brahma-world (i.e. at the beginning of each new world-formation; s. deva II).

(3) ''There are beings who are equal in body but different in perception, such as the Radiant Gods (ábhassara, s. deva II).

(4) "There are beings who are equal in body and equal in perception, such as the All-Illuminating Gods (subha-kinha; s. deva II).

(5) "There are beings without perception and feeling, such as the unconscious beings (asañña-satta, q.v.).

(6) "There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of perceptions of matter (rúpa-sañña), the disappearance of perceptions of sense-reaction (patigha-sañña), and the non-attention to perceptions of variety thinking: 'Boundless is space', are reborn in the sphere of buundless space (s. deva, III; jhána, 5).

(7) "There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of the sphere of boundless space, thinking: 'Boundless is consciousness', are reborn in the sphere of boundless consciousness (s. jhána 6).

(8) "There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of the sphere of boundless consciousness, thinking: 'Nothing is there, are reborn in the sphere of nothingness (s. jhána, 7).

(9) "There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of the sphere of nothingness, are reborn in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception (s. jhána, 8)" (A. IX, 24).

According to the Com. to A., the beings of the Pure Abodes (suddhávása, q.v.) are not mentioned here, for the reason that they exist only in those world-periods in which Buddhas appear. Cf. viññána-tthiti.

sa-upádisesa-nibbána: s. nibbána, upádi.

sávaka: 'hearer', i.e. 'disciple', refers, in a restricted sense (then mostly ariya-sávaka, 'nohle disciple'), only to the 8 kinds of noble disciples (ariya-puggala, q.v.).

sávaka-bodhi: 'enlightenment of the disciple', designates the holiness of the disciple, as distinguished from the holiness of the Pacceka-Buddha (q.v.) and the Sammá-sambuddha (q.v.).

sceptical doubt: vicikicchá (q.v.). Cf. kankhá.

scruples: kukkucca (q.v.).

sekha: a 'noble learner', a disciple in higher training, i.e. one who pursues the 3 kinds of training (sikkhá, q.v.), is one of those 7 kinds of noble disciples who have reached one of the 4 supermundane paths or the 3 lower fruitions (s. ariya-puggala), while the one possessed of the 4th fruition, or Arahatta-phala, is called 'one beyond training' (asekha, lit. 'no more learner'). The worldling (puthujjana, q.v.) is called 'neither a noble learner, nor perfected in learning' (n'eva-sekha-násekha). Cf. Pug. 23-25.

self: attá (q.v.).

self-annihilation, craving for: vibhava-tanhá (s. tanhá).

self-confidence: vesárajja (q.v.).

self-mortification: atta-kilamatha (q.v.).

senásana: 'dwelling place', is one of the 4 requisites of the monk's life (s. síla 4). To be suitable for spiritual training, it should possess 5 advantages. As it is said (A. X, 11): "But how, o monks, does the dwelling place possess 5 advantages? Such a dwelling place is not too far, nor too near (to the village), is suitable for going (on almsround) and returning. In the daytime it is not much crowded, and at night without noise and bustle. One is not much molested there by gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, sun and creeping things. While living there, the monk without difficulty obtains robes, almsfood, dwelling, and the necessary medicines. There are elder monks living there, with great learning, well versed in the Message, masters of the Law (dhamma), of the Discipline (vinaya) and of the Tables of Contents (i.e. either the twofold Abhidhamma Matrix, or the Bhikkhu and Bhikkhuni Pátimokkha; s. pátimokkha). And he approaches them from time to time, questions them, asks them for explanations, etc.

sense-organs and objects: s. áyatana, dhátu.

sense-stimuli, corporeality responding to: s. áyatana.

sensitive corporeality: pasáda-rúpa (q.v.).

sensuality (subj. & obj.): káma (q.v.).

sensuous clinging: kámúpádána; s. upádána.

sensuous craving: káma-tanhá (-rága), is one of the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.), and one of the 3 kinds of craving (tanhá, q.v.).

sensuous sphere (-world): s. avacara, loka.

serenity: s. samatha.

seven rebirths at the utmost: s. sotápanna.

sex: s. bháva.

sexual intercourse, unlawful: s. kámesu micchácára.

shame: hiri (q.v.).

shamelessness: ahirika (q.v.).

signless (animitta): s. ceto-vimutti, vimokkha, vipassaná.

sikkhá: the 'training', which the Buddha's disciple has to undergo, is 3-fold: training in higher morality (adhisíla-sikkhá), in higher mentality (adhicitta-sikkhá), and in higher wisdom (adhipaññá-sikkhá). This 3-fold training refers to the 3-fold division of the the 8-fold Path (magga, q.v.) in morality, concentration and wisdom (síla, samádhi, paññá). In D. 16 and A.IV,1 it is said:

"It is through not understanding, not penetrating noble morality ... noble concentration ... noble wisdom ... noble deliverance that I, as well as you, have had for such a long time to pass through this round of rebirths.''

"This then is morality, this concentration, this wisdom, this deliverance. Being endowed with morality, concentration brings high fruit and blessing. Being endowed with concentration, wisdom hrings high fruit and blessing. Being endowed with wisdom, the mind becomes freed from all cankers (ásava q.v.) namely, from the sensuous canker (kámásava), from the canker of existence (bhavasava) from the canker of opinions (ditthisava) from the canker of ignorance (avijjásava).

sikkhápada: 'steps of training', moral rules.

The 5 moral rules, also called pañca-síla which are binding on all Buddhist laymen, are: (1) abstaining from killing any living being, (2) from stealing, (3) from unlawful sexual intercourse, (4) from lying, (5) from the use of intoxicants.(s. surámeraya etc.)

The 10 rules (dasa-síla) are binding on all novices and monks, namely: (1) abstaining from killing, (2) from stealing, (3) from unchastity, (4) from lying, (5) from the use of intoxicants, (6) from eating after midday, (7) from dancing, singing, music and shows, (8) from garlands, scents, cosmetics and adornments, etc., (9) from luxurious beds, (10) from accepting gold and silver.

In the 8 rules (attha-síla) which on full and new moon days, and on the first and last quarter of the moon, are observed by many lay-followers (upásaka, q.v.), the 7th and 8th of the above 10 rules are fused into one as the 7th rule, while the 9th becomes the 8th.

síla: 'morality', 'virtue', is a mode of mind and volition (cetana, q.v.) manifested in speech or bodily action (s. karma). It is the foundation of the whole Buddhist practice, and therewith the first of the 3 kinds of training (sikkhá, q.v.) that form the 3-fold division of the 8-fold Path (s. magga), i.e. morality, concentration and wisdom.

Buddhist morality is not, as it may appear from the negative formulations in the Sutta-texts, something negative. And it does not consist in the mere not committing of evil actions, but is in each instance the clearly conscious and intentional restraint from the bad actions in question and corresponds to the simultaneously arising volition.

Morality of the 8-fold Path, namely, right speech, right action and right livelihood, is called 'genuine or natural morality' pakatisíla), as distinguished from the external rules for monks or laymen, the so-called 'prescribed morality' (paññatti-síla, q.v.), which, as such, is karmically neutral.

"What now is karmically wholesome morality (kusala-síla)? It is the wholesome bodily action (káya-kamma, s. karma), wholesome verbal action (vací-kamma, s. karma), and also the purity with regard to livelihood which I call morality" (M. 78). Cf. magga, 3-5.

For the 5, 8 and 10 rules, s. sikkhápada. Further cf. cáritta- and váritta-síla.

The 4 kinds of morality consisting of purification (catupárisuddhi-síla) are: (1) restraint with regard to the monks' Disciplinary Code, (2) restraint of the senses, (3) purification of livelihood, (4) morality with regard to the 4 requisites (of the monk) .

(1) Restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code (pátimokkha-samvara-síla). "Here the monk is restrained in accordance with the monks' Disciplinary Code, is perfect in conduct and behaviour, and perceiving danger even in the least offences, he trains himself in the rules he has taken upon him" (A . V, 87,109 ,114, etc. ) .

(2) Restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara-síla). "Whenever the monk perceives a form with the eye, a sound with the ear, an odour with the nose, a taste with the tongue, an impression with the body, an object with the mind, he neither adheres to the appearance as a whole, nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and unwholesome things, greed and sorrow, would arise, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses" (M 38).

(3) Purification of livelihood (ájíva-párisuddhi-síla). It consists therein that the monk does not acquire his livelihood in a way unbefitting to a monk.

(4) Morality with regard to the 4 rcquisites (paccaya-sannissita-síla). It consists therein that the monk is guided by the right mental attitude when making use of the 4 requisites: robes, almsfood, dwelling and medicine. "Wisely reflecting he makes use of his robes ... merely to protect himself against cold and heat, etc. Wisely reflecting he makes use of his almsfood... merely as a prop and support to this body.... Wisely reflecting he makes use of his dwelling... merely to keep off the dangers of weather and to enjoy solitude.... Wisely rerlecting he makes use of the necessary medicines, merely to suppress feelings of sickness that arise, and to reach perfect freedom from suffering" (cf. M. 2).

About these 4 kinds of morality, Vis.M. I gives a detailed exposition.

sílabbata-parámása and -upádána: 'attachment (or clinging) to mere rules and ritual', is the 3rd of the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.), and one of the 4 kinds of clinging (upádána, q.v.). It disappears on attaining to Stream-entry (sotápatti). For definition, s. upádána.

síla-samádhi-paññá: s. sikkhá, magga.

silent buddha: pacceka-buddha (q.v.).

sitting position, sleeping in: s. dhutanga.

sívathiká: 'cemetery contemplations', as deseribed in D. 22 and M. 10, have as their objects a corpse one or two or three days old, swollen up, blue-black in colour, full of corruption; a corpse eaten by crows, etc.; a framework of bones; flesh hanging from it, bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews; without flesh and blood, but still held together by the sinews; bones scattered in all direction; bleached and resembling shells; heaped together after the lapse of years; weathered and crumbled to dust. At the end of each of these contemplations there follows the conclusion: "This body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, cannot escape it." Similar are the 10 objects of loathsomeness (asubha q.v.).

skilful: kusala (q.v.).

sloth: middha, s. nívarana.

sobhana: 'lofty', beautiful, pure, are called, in Abh. S., all states of consciousness excepting the unwholesome and those without roots (ahetuka). Sobhana-sádhárana are called the mental factors (cetasika) common to all lofty consciousness; s. Tab. II.

somanassa: lit 'glad-minded-ness' (su+manas+ya), gladness, joy; identical with 'mentally agreeable feeling' (cetasiká sukhá vedaná), belongs to the feeling-group (vedaná-kkhandha, s. khandha II), and is enumerated amongst the 22 faculties (indriya, q.v.). It may or may not be associated with karmically wholesome consciousness (s. Tab. I. 1-4, 9-12, 18-21), with karmically unwholesome consciousness (greedy c. ib. 22-25), and with karmically neutral consciousness (ib. 40, 42-45, 57-60, 66-69, 72-76. 81-84), - Somanassa is not identical with píti (q.v.).

somanassúpavicára: 'indulging in gladness'; s. mano-pavicára.

something: kiñcana (q.v.).

sotápanna: the 'Stream-winner', is the lowest of the 8 noble disciples (s. ariya-puggala). Three kinds are to be distinguished: the one 'with 7 rebirths at the utmost' (sattakkhattu-parama), the one 'passing from one noble family to another' (kolankola), the one 'germinating only once more' (eka-bíjí). As it is said (e.g. Pug. 37-39; A. III, 87):

(1) "If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 fetters (personality-belief, skeptical doubt, attachment to rules and ritual; s. samyojana), has entered the stream (to Nibbána), he is no more subject to rebirth in lower worlds, is firmly established, destined to full enlightenment. After having passed amongst the heavenly and human beings only seven times more through the round of rebirths, he puts an end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one with 7 births at the utmost' (sattakkhattu-parama).

(2) "If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 fetters.... is destined to full enlightenment, he, after having passed among noble families two or three times through the round of rebirths, puts an end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one passing from one noble family to another' (kolankola).

(3) "If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 fetters.... is destined to full enlightenment, he, after having only once more returned to human existence, puts an end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one germinating only once more' (eka-bíjí). See Sotápatti-Samyutta (S. LV).

sotápannassa angáni: the 'characteristic qualities of a Stream-winner' are 4: unshakable faith towards the Enlightened One, unshakable faith towards the Doctrine, unshakable faith towards the Order, and perfect morality. Explained in S. LV, I, D. 33, in S. XLVII, 8 and in Netti-ppakarana these 4 qualities are called sotápattiyanga (q.v.).

sotápatti: 'Stream-entry'; s. sotápanna; s. -magga, -phala, 'path and fruition of Stream-entry'; s. ariyapuggala.

sotápattiyanga: the 4 (preliminary) 'conditions to Stream-entry' are: companionship with good persons, hearing the Good Law, wise reflection, living in conformity with the Law (S. LV, 5; D. 33). Cf. sotápannassa angáni.

space: s. ákása.

spheres (of existence): avacara (q.v.). - The 4 immaterial spheres (áyatana): s. jhána (5-8).

spiritual faculties: s. indriya (15-19), indriya-samatta, bala.

spontaneously born beings: opapátika (q.v.).

stains, the 3: mala (q.v.).

standstill (of morality etc.): s. hána-bhágiya-síla. S. of existence: vivatta (q.v.).

stinginess: macchariya (q.v.); cf. Tab. II.

stored-up karma: katattá; s. karma.

stream-entry: s. sotápanna, ariya-puggala.

streams of merit: puññadhárá (q.v.).

stream-winner: s. sotápanna, ariya-puggala.

stupid-natured: s. carita.

subconscious stream (of existence): bhavanga-sota (q.v.).

subha-kinha (or-kinna): s. deva, II.

subha-nimitta: 'beautiful (or attractive) object of mind'; it may become an inducement to the arising of sense-desire (kámacchanda; s. nívarana): "No other thing do I know, o monks, through which in such a degree sense-desire may arise, and once arisen will continue to grow, as an attractive object. Whoso does not wisely consider an attractive object, in him sense-desire will arise, and once arisen will continue to grow" (A. I, 2).

subha-saññá, -citta, -ditthi: 'the perception (consciousnes or view) of beauty (or purity)' in what is actually devoid of it (asubhe subha-saññá), is one of the 4 perversions (vipallása, q.v.).

sublime abodes (or States): brahma-vihára (q.v.).

substrata of existence: upadhi (q.v.).

sucarita: 'good conduct', is 3-fold, in body, speech and mind, and comprises the 10 wholesome courses of action (s. kammapatha). According to A. X, 61, it has sense-control as its condition. See D. 33, A. II, 17; III, 2.

successive births, karma ripening in: s. karma.

suchness: tathatá (q.v.).

sudassa, sudassí: s. foll.

suddhávása: the 'Pure Abodes', are a group of 5 heavens belonging to the fine-material world (rúpa-loka, s. loka), where only the Non-returners (s. anágámí, q.v.) are reborn, and in which they attain Arahatship and Nibbána (ariya-puggala). The names of the inhabitants of these Pure Abodes are: Áviha, Átappa, Sudassa, Sudassí, Akanittha. Cf. anágámí.

suddha-vipassaná-yánika = sukkha-vipassaka (q.v.).

suffering: For the 4 Truths of suffering, s. sacca; further s. ti-lakkhana.

sugati: 'happy course of existence'; s. gati.

sukha: pleasant, happy; happiness, pleasure, joy, bliss. It is one of the three feelings (s. vedaná) and may be either bodily or mental. The texts distinguish between the happiness of the senses and the h. of renunciation (A. II), worldly (carnal; sámisa) and unworldly (non-carnal; nirámisa) happiness (M. 10). See A. II, ch. VIII. - Happiness is an indispensable condition for attaining concentration of mind (samádhi, q.v.), and therefore it is one of the 5 factors (or constituents) of the 1st absorption (jhánanga; s. jhána) and is present up to the 3rd absorption inclusively. "The mind of the happy one has concentration as its fruit and reward" (A.X,1). - "In him who is filled with happiness, right concentration has found a foundation" (A.X,3).

sukha-saññá, -citta, -ditthi: 'the perception (consciousness or view) of happiness' in what is actually suffering (dukkhe sukha-saññá), i.e. any form of existence, it is one of the perversions (vipallása, q.v.).

sukkha-vipassaka: 'one supported by bare insight', is the commentarial term for one who, without having attained any of the meditative absorptions (jhána, q.v.), has realized only by the support of insight (vipassaná, q.v.) one or several of the supermundane paths (s. ariyapuggala). In Vis.M. XVIII, he is called suddha-vipassaná-yánika, as distinguished from 'one who has tranquillity as vehicle' (samathayánika, q.v.). Though the primary meaning of sukkha as intended here is as stated above, subcommentaries (e.g. D. Tíká) employ also the literal meaning of sukkha, i.e. 'dry': "His insight is dry, rough, unmoistened by the moisture of tranquillity meditation." This justifies a frequent rendering of this term by 'dry-visioned' or 'having dry insight', which, however, should not lead to misconceptions about the nature of insight meditation as being 'dry' or 'merely intellectual', while in fact the development of insight will produce rapture (píti) and a sense of urgency (samvega) in the meditator. - (App.).

suñña (adj.), suññatá (noun): void (ness), empty (emptiness). As a doctrinal term it refers, in Theraváda, exclusively to the anattá doctrine,.i.e. the unsubstantiality of all phenomena: "Void is the world ... because it is void of a self and anything belonging to a self" (suññam attena vá attaniyena vá; S. XXXV, 85); also stated of the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.) in the same text. See also M. 43, M. 106. - In CNidd. (quoted in Vis.M. XXI, 55), it is said: "Eye ... mind, visual objects ... mind-objects, visual consciousness ... mind-consciousness, corporeality ... consciousness, etc., are void of self and anything belonging to a self; void of permanency and of anything lasting, eternal or immutable.. They are coreless: without a core of permanency, or core of happiness or core of self." - In M. 121, the voiding of the mind of the cankers, in the attainment of Arahatship, is regarded as the "fully purified and incomparably highest (concept of) voidness. - See Sn. v. 1119; M. 121; M. 122 (WHEEL 87); Pts.M. II: Suñña-kathá; Vis.M. XXI, 53ff.

suññatánupassaná: 'contemplation of emptiness' (s. prec.), is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (vipassaná, q.v.). Cf. Vis.M. XXI.

suññatá-vimokkha: 'emptiness-deliverance'; s. vimokkha.

superiority-conceit: s. mána.

supermundane: lokuttara (q.v.); -faculties, s. indriya (20-22).

supernormal: mahaggata (q.v.); -knowledges, s. abhiññá.

support, decisive support: (nissaya, upanissaya) are two of the 24 conditions (s. paccaya).

supportive karma: upatthambhaka-kamma; s. karma.

suppressive karma: upapílaka-kamma; s. karma.

surámeraya-majja-ppamádattháná veramaní sikkhápadam samádiyámi: "I take upon myself the vow to abstain from taking intoxicants and drugs such as wine, liquor, etc. since they lead to moral carelessness." This is the wording of the last of the 5 moral rules (s. sikkhápada) binding on all Buddhists .

susánik'anga: s. dhutanga.

suta-mayá paññá: 'knowledge based on learning'; s. paññá.