'stinginess', avarice. "There are 5 kinds of stinginess,
o monks; regarding the dwelling place, regarding families, regarding
gain, regarding recognition, regarding mental things' (A. IX,
49; Pug. 56).
'infatuation'. "Infatuation is of 3 kinds: youth-infatuation,
health-infatuation, life-infatuation" (D. 33). "Infatuated
by youth-infatuation, by health-infatuation and by life-infatuation,
the ignorant worldling pursues an evil course in bodily actions,
speech and thought, and thereby, at the dissolution of the body,
after death, passes to a lower world, to a woeful course of
existence, to a state of suffering and hell" (A. III, 39).
'path'. 1. For the 4 supermundane paths (lokuttara-magga),
s. ariya-puggala - 2. The Eightfold Path (atthangika-magga)
is the path leading to the extinction of suffering, i.e. the
last of the 4 Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.), namely:
Right view (sammá-ditthi)
Right thought (sammá-sankappa)
Right speech (sammá-vácá)
Right bodily action (sammá-kammanta)
Right livelihood (sammá-ájíva)
Right effort (sammá-váyáma)
Right mindfulness (sammá-sati)
Right concentration (sammá-samádhi)
Right view or right understanding (sammá-ditthi) is the
understanding of the 4 Noble Truths about the universality of
suffering (unsatisfactoriness), of its origin, its cessation,
and the path leading to that cessation. - See the Discourse
on 'Right Understanding' (M. 9, tr. and Com. in 'R. Und.').
Right thought (sammá-sankappa): thoughts free from sensuous
desire, from ill-will, and cruelty.
Right speech (sammá-vácá): abstaining from lying, tale-bearing,
harsh language, and foolish babble.
Right bodily action (sammá-kammanta): abstaining from
killing, stealing, and unlawful sexual intercourse.
Right livelihood (sammá-ájíva): abstaining from a livelihood
that brings harm to other beings, such as trading in arms, in
living beings, intoxicating drinks, poison; slaughtering, fishing,
soldiering, deceit, treachery soothsaying, trickery, usury,
Right effort (sammá-váyáma): the effort of avoiding or
overcoming evil and unwholesome things, and of developing and
maintaining wholesome things (s. padhána).
Right mindfulness (sammá-sati): mindfulness and awareness
in contemplating body, feelings, mind, and mind-objects (s.
Right concentration (sammá-samádhi): concentration of
mind associated with wholesome (kusala) consciousness,
which eventually may reach the absorptions (jhána, q.v.).
are to be distinguished 2 kinds of concentration, mundane
(lokiya) and supermundane (lokuttara) concentration.
The latter is associated with those states of consciousness
known as the 4 supermundane paths and fruitions (s. ariya-puggala).
As it is said in M. 117:
tell you, o monks, there are 2 kinds of right view: the understanding
that it is good to give alms and offerings, that both good and
evil actions will bear fruit and will be followed by results....
This, o monks, is a view which, though still subject to the
cankers, is meritorious, yields worldly fruits, and brings good
results. But whatever there is of wisdom, of penetration, of
right view conjoined with the path - the holy path being pursued,
this is called the supermundane right view (lokuttara-sammá-ditthi),
which is not of the world, but which is supermundane and
conjoined with the path."
a similar way the remaining links of the path are to be understood.
many of those who have written about the Eightfold Path have
misunderstood its true nature, it is therefore appropriate to
add here a few elucidating remarks about it, as this path is
fundamental for the understanding and practice of the Buddha's
of all, the figurative expression 'path' should not be interpreted
to mean that one has to advance step by step in the sequence
of the enumeration until, after successively passing through
all the eight stages, one finally may reach one's destination,
Nibbána. If this really were the case, one should have realized,
first of all, right view and penetration of the truth, even
before one could hope to proceed to the next steps, right thought
and right speech; and each preceding stage would be the indispensable
foundation and condition for each succeeding stage. In reality,
however, the links 3-5 constituting moral training (síla),
are the first 3 links to be cultivated, then the links 6-8
constituting mental training (samádhi), and at last right
view, etc. constituting wisdom (paññá).
is, however, true that a really unshakable and safe foundation
to the path is provided only by right view which, starting from
the tiniest germ of faith and knowledge, gradually, step by
step, develops into penetrating insight (vipassaná) and
thus forms the immediate condition for the entrance into the
4 supermundane paths and fruits of holiness, and for the realization
of Nibbána. Only with regard to this highest form of supermundane
insight, may we indeed say that all the remaining links of the
path are nothing but the outcome and the accompaniments of right
the mundane (lokiya) eightfold path, however, its links
may arise without the first link, right view.
it must also be emphasized that the links of the path not only
do not arise one after the other, as already indicated, but
also that they, at least in part, arise simultaneously as inseparably
associated mental factors in one and the same state of consciousness.
Thus, for instance, under all circumstances at least 4 links
are inseparably bound up with any karmically wholesome consciousness,
namely 2, 6, 7 and 8, i.e. right thought, right effort, right
mindfulness and right concentration (M. 117), so that as soon
as any one of these links arises, the three others also do so.
On the other hand, right view is not necessarily present in
every wholesome state of consciousness.
is one of the 24 conditions (s. paccaya 18).
The Noble Eightfold Path and its Factors Explained, by Ledi
Sayadaw (WHEEL 245/247). - The Buddha's Ancient Path, by
Piyadassi Thera (BPS).- The Noble Eightfold Path, by Bhikkhu
Bodhi (WHEEL 308/311).
'purification by knowledge of what is path and not-path',
is one of the 7 stages of purification (visuddhi V, q.v.).
'path as a condition', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
q.v.). magical powers: s. iddhi; abhiññá (1).
the 4 'primary elements', is another name for the 4 elements
(dhátu) underlying all corporeality; s. dhátu.
the 'great gods', are a class of heavenly beings in the
fine-material world; s. deva, II.
lit., 'grown great', i.e. 'developed', exalted, supernormal.
As mahaggata-citta, it is the state of 'developed consciousness',
attained in the fine-material and immaterial absorptions (s.
jhána); it is mentioned in the mind-contemplation of the
Satipatthána Sutta (M. 10). - As mahaggatárammana, it
is the 'developed mental object' of those absorptions and is
mentioned in the 'object triad' of the Abhidhamma schedule and
Dhs. (s. Guide, p. 6).
the 8 'thoughts of a great man', are described in A. VIII,
30, and D. 34.
the 18 'chief kinds of insight'; s. vipassaná.
effort to maintain wholesome things; s. padhána.
'Middle Path', is the Noble Eightfold Path which, by avoiding
the two extremes of sensual lust and self-torment, leads to
enlightenment and deliverance from suffering.
give oneself up to indulgence in sensual pleasure (káma-sukha),
the base, common, vulgar, unholy, unprofitable; and also to
give oneself up to self-torment (atta-kilamatha), the
painful, unholy, unprofitable, both these two extremes the Perfect
One has avoided and has found the Middle Path (s. magga),
which causes one both to see and to know, and which leads to
peace, to discernment, to enlightenment, to Nibbána. It is the
Noble Eightfold Path, the way that leads to the extinction of
suffering, namely: right understanding, right thought, right
speech, right bodily action, right livelihood, right effort,
right mindfulness, and right concentration" (S. LVI, 11).
'stains', is a name for the 3 karmically unwholesome roots
(akusala-múla); greed, hate and delusion (lobha, dosa,
'conceit', pride, is one of the 10 fetters binding to existence
(s. samyojana). It vanishes completely only at the entrance
to Arahatship, or Holiness (cf. asmi-mána). It is further
one of the proclivities (s. anusaya) and defilements
(s. kilesa). "
(equality-) conceit (mána), the inferiority-conceit (omána)
and the superiority-conceit (atimána): this threefold
conceit should be overcome. For, after overcoming this threefold
conceit, the monk, through the full penetration of conceit,
is said to have put an end suffering" (A. VI, 49).
ascetics and brahman priests who, relying on this impermanent,
miserable and transitory nature of corporeality, feelings, perceptions,
mental formations and consciousness, fancy: 'Better am I', or
'Equal am I', or 'Worse am I', all these imagine thus through
not understanding reality" (S. XXII, 49).
reality no ego-entity is to be found. Cf. anattá.
'attention', 'mental advertence', 'reflection'.
As a psychological term, attention belongs to the formation-group
(sankhára-kkhandha; s. Tab. II) and is one of the 7 mental
factors (cetasika) that are inseparably associated with
all states of consciousness (s. cetaná). In M. 9, it
is given as one of the factors representative of mind (náma)
It is the mind's first 'confrontation with an object' and
'binds the associated mental factors to the object.' It is,
therefore, the prominent factor in two specific classes of consciousness:
i.e. 'advertence (ávajjana, q.v.) at the five sense-doors'
(Tab. I, 70) and at the mind-door (Tab. I, 71). These two states
of consciousness, breaking through the subconscious life-continuum
(bhavanga), form the first stage in the perceptual process
(citta-víthi; s. viññána-kicca). See Vis.M. XIV,
In a more general sense, the term appears frequently in the
Suttas as yoniso-manasikára, 'wise (or reasoned, methodical)
attention' or 'wise reflection'. It is said, in M. 2, to counteract
the cankers (ásava, q.v.); it is a condition for the
arising of right view (s. M. 43), of Stream-entry (s. sotápattiyanga),
and of the factors of enlightenment (s. S. XLVI, 2.49,51). -
'Unwise attention' (ayoniso-manasikára) leads to the
arising of the cankers (s. M. 2) and of the five hindrances
(s. S. XLVI, 2.51).
'mind-base', is a collective term for all the different
states of consciousness; s. áyatana.
means, in general usage, anything regarded as 'auspicious'
'lucky', or a 'good omen'. Against the contemporary superstitions
notions about it, the Buddha, in the Mahá-mangala Sutta (Sn.,
w. 258 ff.), set forth 36 'blessings' that are truly auspicious,
i.e. conducive to happiness, beginning with the 'avoidance of
bad company' and ending with a 'serene mind'. It is one of the
most popular Suttas in Buddhist countries, and a fundamental
text on Buddhist lay ethics.
in Everyman's Ethics (WHEEL 14). See Life's Highest Blessings,
by Dr. R. L. Soni. (WHEEL 254/256).
'mind', is in the Abhidhamma used as synonym of viññána
(consciousness) and citta (state of consciousness, mind).
According to the Com. to Vis.M., it sometimes means sub-consciousness
'mind-element', is one of the 18 elements (s. dhátu
II). This term, unlike manáyatana, does not apply to
the whole of consciousness, but designates only that special
element of consciousness which first, at the beginning of the
process of sense-perception, performs the function of advertence
(ávajjana; Tab. I, 70) to the sense-object and, then
after twice having become conscious of it performs the function
of reception (sampaticchana; Tab I- 39,.55) into mind-consciousness.
'mental action'; s. karma, kammapatha.
iddhi: s. iddhi.
'the celestial beings corruptible by temper', are a class
of devas (q.v.) of the sensuous sphere. "They spend
their time in becoming annoyed with one another, and getting
into a temper, and thus by being bodily and mentally exhausted,
they pass from that world" (D. 1; 24).
'mental indulging'. There are mentioned 18 ways of indulging:
6 in gladness (somanassúpavicára), 6 in sorrow (domanassa),
6 in indifference (upekkhá). "Perceiving with the
eye a visible form ... hearing with the ear a sound ... being
in mind conscious of an object, one indulges in the joy-producing
object, the sorrow-producing object, the indifference-producing
object... " (M. 137; A. III, 61). - In the Com. to A.,
upavicára is said to be identical with vitakka-vicára
'mental volition'; s. áhára.
'mind-consciousness element', one of the 18 'elements' (s.
dhátu II). This term is generally used as a name for
that consciousness-element which performs the functions of investigation
(santírana), determining (votthapana), registering
(tadárammana), etc. See Tab. I, 40, 41, 56, 71, 72.
(lit. 'the killer'), is the Buddhist 'Tempter-figure. He
is often called 'Mára the Evil One' (pápimá máro) or
Namuci (lit. 'the non-liberator', i.e. the opponent of liberation).
He appears in the texts both as a real person (i.e. as a deity)
and as personification of evil and passions, of the totality
of worldly existence, and of death. Later Páli literature often
speaks of a 'fivefold Mára' (pañca-mára): 1. M. as a
deity (devaputta-mára), 2. the M. of defilements (kilesa-m.),
3. the M. of the aggregates (khandha-m.), 4. the M. of
the karma-formations (kamma-m.), and 5. Mára as death
a real person, M. is regarded as the deity ruling over the highest
heaven of the sensuous sphere (kámávacara), that of the
paranimmitavasavatti-devas, the 'deities wielding power
over the creations of others' (Com. to M. 1). According to tradition,
when the Bodhisatta was seated under the Bodhi-tree, Mára tried
in vain to obstruct his attainment of Enlightenment, first by
frightening him through his hosts of demons, etc., and then
by his 3 daughters' allurements. This episode is called 'Mára's
war' (mára-yuddha). For 7 years M. had followed the Buddha,
looking for any weakness in him; that is, 6 years before the
Enlightenment and one year after it (Sn. v. 446). He also tried
to induce the Buddha to pass away into Parinibbána without proclaiming
the Dhamma, and also when the time for the Buddha's Parinibbána
had come, he urged him on. But the Buddha acted on his own insight
in both cases. See D. 16.
(3) M. as the aggregates, s. S. XXIII, 1, 11, 12, 23. See Padhána
Sutta (Sn. v. 425ff.); Mára Samyutta (S. IV).
'death', in ordinary usage, means the disappearance of the
vital faculty confined to a single life-time, and therewith
of the psycho-physical life-process conventionally called 'man,
animal, personality, ego', etc. Strictly speaking, however,
death is the continually repeated dissolution and vanishing
of each momentary physical-mental combination, and thus it takes
place every moment. About this momentaneity of existence, it
is said in Vis.M. VIII:
the absolute sense, beings have only a very short moment to
live, life lasting as long as a single moment of consciousness
lasts. Just as a cart-wheel, whether rolling or whether at a
standstill, at all times only rests on a single point of its
periphery, even so the life of a living being lasts only for
the duration of a single moment of consciousness. As soon as
that moment ceases, the being also ceases. For it is said: 'The
being of the past moment of consciousness has lived, but does
not live now, nor will it live in future. The being of the future
moment has not yet lived, nor does it live now, but it will
live in the future. The being of the present moment has not
lived, it does live just now, but it will not live in the future.'
another sense, the coming to an end of the psycho-physical life-process
of the Arahat, or perfectly Holy One, at the moment of his passing
away may be called the final and ultimate death, as up to that
moment the psycho-physical life-process was still going on from
life to life.
in the ordinary sense, combined with old age, forms the 12th
link in the formula of dependent origination (paticca-samuppáda
death as a subject of meditation, s. maranánussati; as
a function of consciousness, s. viññána-kicca.
'recollection of death', is one of the 10 recollections
treated in detail in Vis.M. VIII:
of death, developed and frequently practised, yields great reward,
great blessing, has Deathlessness as its goal and object. But
how may such recollection be developed?
soon as the day declines, or as the night vanishes and the day
is breaking, the monk thus reflects: 'Truly, there are many
possibilities for me to die: I may be bitten by a serpent, or
be stung by a scorpion or a centipede, and thereby I may lose
my life. But this would be an obstacle for me. Or I may stumble
and fall to the ground, or the food eaten by me may not agree
with my health; or bile, phlegm and piercing body gases may
become disturbing, or men or ghosts may attack me, and thus
I may lose my life. But this would be an obstacle for me.' Then
the monk has to consider thus: 'Are there still to be found
in me unsubdued evil, unwholesome things which, if I should
die today or tonight, might lead me to suffering?' Now, if he
understands that this is the case, he should use his utmost
resolution, energy, effort, endeavour, steadfastness, attentiveness
and clear-mindedness in order to overcome these evil, unwholesome
things" (A VIII, 74).
Vis.M. VIII it is said: 'He who wishes to develop this meditation,
should retreat to solitude, and whilst living secluded he should
thus wisely reflect: 'Death will come to me! The vital energy
will be cut off!' Or: 'Death! Death!' To him, namely, who does
not wisely reflect, sorrow may arise by thinking on the death
of a beloved person, just as to a mother whilst thinking on
the death of her beloved child. Again, by reflecting on the
death of a disliked person, joy may arise, just as to enemies
whilst thinking on the death of their enemies. Through thinking
on the death of an indifferent person, however, no emotion will
arise, just as to a man whose work consists in cremating the
dead at the sight of a dead body. And by reflecting on one's
own death fright may arise ... just as at the sight of a murderer
with drawn sword one becomes filled with horror. Thus, whenever
seeing here or there slain or other dead beings, one should
reflect on the death of such deceased persons who once lived
in happiness, and one should rouse one's attentiveness, emotion
and knowledge and consider thus: 'Death will come, etc.' ....
Only in him who considers in this way, will the hindrances (nívarana,
q.v.) be repressed; and through the idea of death attention
becomes steadfast, and the exercise reaches neighbourhood-concentration
to Vis.M. VIII, one may also reflect on death in the following
various ways: one may think of it as a murderer with a drawn
sword standing in front of oneself; or one may bear in mind
that all happiness ends in death; or that even the mightiest
beings on this earth are subject to death; or that we must share
this body with all those innumerable worms and other tiny beings
residing therein; or that life is something dependent on in-and-out
breathing, and bound up with it; or that life continues only
as long as the elements, food, breath, etc. are properly performing
their functions; or that nobody knows when, where, and under
what circumstances, death will take place, and what kind of
fate we have to expect after death; or, that life is very short
and limited. As it is said: 'Short, indeed, is this life of
men, limited, fleeting, full or woe and torment; it is just
like a dewdrop that vanishes as soon as the sun rises; like
a water-bubble; like a furrow drawn in the water; like a torrent
dragging everything along and never standing still; like cattle
for slaughter that every moment look death in the face"
(A. VII, 74).
monk devoted to this recollection of death is at all time indefatigable,
gains the idea of disgust with regard to all forms of existence,
gives up delight in life, detests evil, does not hoard up things,
is free from stinginess with regard to the necessities of life,
the idea of impermanence (anicca) becomes familiar to
him; and through pursuing it, the idea of misery (dukkha)
and of impersonality (anattá) become present to him ....
Free from fear and bewilderment will he pass away at death;
and should he not yet realize the Deathless State in his life-time,
he will at the dissolution of the body attain to a happy course
of existence" (Vis.M. VIII).
Buddhist Reflections on Death, by V. F. Gunaratna (WHEEL
102/103). -Buddhism and Death, by M.Q.C. Walshe (WHEEL.
(regarding the absorptions): s. vasí. - 8 stages
of: abhibháyatana (q.v.).
food: kabalinkáráhára (q.v.).
(corporeality): s. khandha, rúpa-kalápa.
one, the: gotrabhú (q.v.).
gotrabhú-ñána; s. visuddhi (VII).
evident, and to be inferred: s. neyyatthadhamma.
Just as the karmical, i.e. moral, quality of any action
is determined by the quality of volition (cetaná) underlying
it, and independently of this volition nothing whatever can
be called karmically wholesome or unwholesome (kusala, akusala),
just so it is with the merely external act of meat-eating,
this being as such purely non-moral, i.e. karmically neutral
3 circumstances meat-eating is to be rejected: if one has seen,
or heard, or suspects (that the animal has been slaughtered
expressly for one's own sake)" (M. 55). For if in such
a case one should partake of the meat, one would as it were
approve the murder of animals, and thus encourage the animal-murderer
in his murderous deeds. Besides, that the Buddha never objected,
in ordinary circumstances, to meat-eating may be clearly understood
from many passages of the Suttas (e.g. A. V. 44; VIII, 12; M.
55, etc.), as also from the Vinaya, where it is related that
the Buddha firmly rejected Devadatta's proposal to forbid meat-eating
to the monks; further from the fact that 10 kinds of meat were
(for merely external reasons) forbidden to the monks, namely
from elephants, tigers, serpents, etc.
Amagandha Sutta (Sn.). Early Buddhism and the Taking of
Life, by I. B. Horner (WHEEL 104).
s. bhávaná, jhána, samádhi.
action: mano-kamma; s. karma.
advertence: mano-dvárávajjana; s. ávajjana.
formation: sankhára (q.v.). s. Tab. II.
function: citta-sankhára; s. sankhára (2).
image: s. nimitta, kasina, samádhi.
obduracy: ceto-khila (q.v.).
the 4 streams of: puñña-dhárá (q.v.). - For transference
of merit, s. patti-dána.
action: s. puñña, puñña-kiriya-vatthu.
the 9-fold: of the Buddhasásana, s. sásana.
the 3 divine: s. deva-dúta.
the right: ñáya, is a name for the 8-fold path (s.
'loving-kindness', is one of the 4 sublime abodes (brahma-vihára,
-sankappa, -váca etc.: s. foll.
Atthangika: the 'eightfold wrong path', i.e. (1) wrong view
(micchá-ditthi), (2) wrong thought (micchá-sankappa),
(3) wrong speech (micchá-vácá), (4) wrong bodily
action (micchá-kammanta), (5) wrong livelihood (micchá-ájíva),
(6) wrong effort (micchá-váyáma), (7) wrong mindfulness
(micchá-sati), (8) wrong concentration (micchá-samádhi).
Just as the Eightfold Right Path (sammá-magga), so also
here the 8 links are included in the group of mental formations
(sankhára-kkhandha; s. khandha). The links 2,
6, 7, 8, are inseparably bound up with every karmically-unwholesome
state of consciousness. Often are also present 3, 4, or 5, sometimes
'wrongnesses' = prec.
'sloth': Combined with thína, 'torpor', it forms
one of the 5 hindrances (nívarana, q.v.). Both may be
associated with greedy consciousness (s. Tab. III and I, 23,
25, 27, 29).
path: majjhima-patipadá (q.v.).
mano (q.v.); cf. náma.
and corporeality: náma-rúpa (q.v.).
manáyatana; s. áyatana.
sati (q.v.); s. satipatthána. - Right m.:
s. sacca, magga.
dhamma; s. áyatana. - Contemplation of the,
s. satipatthána (4).
'higher': adhicitta-sikkhá, s. sikkhá.
(in the Arahat): s. hasituppáda-citta.
contemplation of: dukkhánupassaná; s. ti-lakkhana.
'delusion', is one of the 3 unwholesome roots (múla,
q.v.). The best known synonym is avijjá (q.v.).
the 'deluded-natured'; s. carita.
(of existence): s. marana.
the fruits of; sámañña-phala (q.v.).
community: Sangha (q.v.); further s. pabbajjá,
progress of the disciple.
síla (q.v.). - Contemplation on, s. anussati
higher: adhisíla-sikkhá; s. sikkhá.
rules, the 5, 8 or 10: s. sikkhápada.
'knowledge consisting in the desire for deliverance'; s.
visuddhi (VI. 6).
'altruistic (or sympathetic) joy', is one of the 4 sublime
abodes (brahma-vihára, q.v.).
(rúpa, káya, citta): 'elasticity' (of corporeality, mental
factors, consciousness); s. khandha (I) and Tab. II.
'roots', also called hetu (q.v.; s. paccaya, 1),
are those conditions which through their presence determine
the actual moral quality of a volitional state (cetaná),
and the consciousness and mental factors associated therewith,
in other words, the quality of karma (q.v.). There are 6 such
roots, 3 karmically wholesome and 3 unwholesome roots, viz.,:
greed, hate, delusion (lobha, dosa, moha), and greedlessness,
hatelessness, undeludedness (alobha, adosa, amoha).
A. III, 68 it is said that greed arises through unwise reflection
on an attractive object, hate through unwise reflection on a
repulsive object. Thus, greed (lobha or rága) comprises
all degrees of 'attractedness' towards an object from the faintest
trace of a longing thought up to grossest egoism, whilst hatred
(dosa) comprises all degrees of 'repulsion' from the
faintest trace of ill-humor up to the highest pitch of hate
3 wholesome (kusala) roots, greedlessness, etc., though
expressed in negative terms, nevertheless possess a distinctly
positive character, just as is also often the case with negative
terms in other languages, for example, the negative term 'immorality',
which has a decidedly positive character.
greedlessness (alobha) is a name for unselfishness, liberality,
etc., hatelessness (adosa) for kindness or goodwill (mettá),
undeludedness (amoha) for wisdom (paññá).
perception of impurity is to be developed in order to overcome
greed (lust); loving-kindness in order to overcome hate; wisdom
in order to overcome delusion" (A. VI, 107).
stealing, unlawful sexual intercourse, lying, tale-bearing,
harsh language, frivolous talk, covetousness, ill-will and wrong
views (s. kammapatha), these things are due either to
greed, or hate, or delusion" (A. X, 174).
with lust (greed), enraged with hate, blinded by delusion, overwhelmed,
with mind ensnared, man aims at his own ruin, at others' ruin,
at the ruin of both, and he experiences mental pain and grief.
And he follows evil ways in deeds, words and thought... And
he really knows neither his own welfare, nor the welfare of
others, nor the welfare of both. These things make him blind
and ignorant, hinder his knowledge, are painful, and do not
lead him to peace."
presence or absence of the 3 unwholesome roots forms part of
the mind contemplation in the Satipatthána Sutta (M. 10). They
are also used for the classification of unwholesome consciousness
(s. Tab. I).
The Roots of Good and Evil, by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL
nánatta-saññá; s. jhána (5).
Contemplation of: viparinámanupassaná: see vipassaná.