lit. 'food formed into balls', i.e. food formed into mouthfuls
for eating (according to Indian custom); it denotes 'material
food' and belongs, together with the three mental nutriments,
to the group of four nutriments (s. áhára).
'group', 'unit': 1. 'corporeal unit' (s. rúpa-kalápa);
2. It has the meaning of 'group of existence' (khandha)
in kalápasammasana (s. sammasana), i.e. 'comprehension
by groups', which is the application of 'methodical (or inductive)
insight' (naya-vipassaná) to the comprehension of the
5 aggregates (khandha) as impermanent, painful and not-self.
It is a process of methodical summarization, or generalization,
from one's own meditative experience that is applied to each
of the 5 aggregates, viewed as past, present, future, as internal
and external, etc. In Vis.M. XX, where the 'comprehension by
groups' is treated in detail, it is said to constitute 'the
beginning of insight' as it leads to the 'knowledge of rise
and fall', being the first of the 8 insightknowledges (s. visuddhi
VI). It is necessary for accomplishing the 5th purification
(s. visuddhi V; Vis.M. XX, 2, 6ff.).
(Skr) = kappa (q.v.).
'noble (or good) friend', is called a senior monk who is
the mentor and friend of his pupil, "wishing for his welfare
and concerned with his progress", guiding his meditation;
in particular, the meditation teacher (kammatthánácariya)
is so called. For details see Vis.M. III, 28,57ff. The Buddha
said that "noble friendship is the entire holy life"
(S. III, 18; XLV, 2), and he himself is the good friend par
excellence: "Ananda, it is owing to my being a good friend
to them that living beings subject to birth are freed from birth"
(S. III, 18).
may denote: 1. subjective sensuality, 'sense-desire'; 2.
objective sensuality, the five sense-objects.
Subjective sensuality, or sense-desire, is directed to all five
sense-objects, and is synonymous with káma-cchanda, 'sensuous
desire', one of the 5 hindrances (nívarana, q.v.); káma-rága,
sensuous lust', one of the ten fetters (samyojana, q.v.);
káma-tanhá, 'sensuous craving', one of the 3 cravings
(tanhá, q.v.); káma-vitakka, 'sensuous thought',
one of the 3 wrong thoughts (micchá-sankappa; s. vitakka).
- Sense-desire is also one of the cankers (ásava, q.v.)
and clingings (upádána, q.v.).
Objective sensuality is, in the canonical texts, mostly called
káma-guna, 'cords (or strands) of sensuality'.
are 5 cords of sensuality: the visible objects, cognizable by
eye-consciousness, that are desirable, cherished, pleasant,
lovely, sensuous and alluring; the sounds ... smells ... tastes
... bodily impressions cognizable by body-consciousness, that
are desirable .... " (D. 33; M. 13, 26, 59, 66).
two kinds of káma are called 1. kilesa-káma, i.e.
káma as a mental defilement, 2. vatthu-káma, i.e.
káma as the object-base of sensuality; first in MNid..
I, p. 1, and frequently in the commentaries.
is finally eliminated at the stage of the Non-Returner (Anágámi;
s. ariya-puggala, samyojana).
peril and misery of sense-desire is often described in the texts,
e.g. in stirring similes at M. 22, 54, and in the 'gradual instruction'
(s. ánupubbí-kathá). See further M. 13, 45, 75; Sn. v.
766ff.; Dhp. 186, 215.
texts often stress the fact that what fetters man to the world
of the senses are not the sense-organs nor the sense-objects
but lustful desire (chandarága). On this see A. VI, 63;
S. XXXV, 122, 191. - (App.).
'sensuous existence'; s. bhava.
'sensuous desire', s. nívarana, chanda.
'sensuous world', s. loka.
'sensuous lust', is one of the 10 fetters (samyojana,
q .v .) .
'being addicted to sensual pleasures', is one of the 2 extremes
to be avoided by the monk; s. majjhima-patipadá.
'sensuous craving'; s. tanhá.
'sensuous sphere'; s. avacara.
lit. 'wrong or evil conduct with regard to sensual things';
'unlawful sexual intercourse' refers to adultery, and to intercourse
with minors or other persons under guardianship. The abstaining
from this unlawful act is one of the 5 moral rules (s. sikkhápada)
binding upon all Buddhists. Through any other sexual act
one does not become guilty of the above transgression, which
is considered a great crime. The monk, however, has to observe
many Suttas (e.g. A.X., 176) we find the following explanation:
"He avoids unlawful sexual intercourse, abstains from it.
He has no intercourse with girls who are still under the protection
of father or mother, brother, sister or relatives, nor with
married women, nor female convicts, nor, lastly, with betrothed
(wholesome or unwholesome) action; s. karma.
s. bhava, paticcasamuppáda.
'karma-produced corporeality'; s. samutthána.
'adaptability', i.e. of corporeality (rúpassa; s.
khandha, Summary I), mental factors (káya), and
of consciousness (citta); cf. Tab. II.
sammá-: 'right action'; s. magga.
'karma as condition'; s. paccaya (13).
'course of action', is a name for the group of 10 kinds
of either unwholesome or wholesome actions, viz.
The tenfold unwholesome courses of action (akusala-kamma-patha):
bodily actions: killing, stealing, unlawful sexual intercourse;
verbal actions: lying, slandering, rude speech, foolish babble;
mental actions: covetousness, ill-will, evil views.
mental courses of action comprise only extreme forms of defiled
thought: the greedy wish to appropriate others' property, the
hateful thought of harming others, and pernicious views. Milder
forms of mental defilement are also unwholesome, but do not
constitute 'courses of action'.
The tenfold wholesome course of action (kusala-kamma-patha):
bodily actions: avoidance of killing, stealing, unlawful sexual
verbal actions: avoidance of lying, slandering, rude
speech, foolish babble; i.e. true, conciliatory, mild,
and wise speech;
mental actions: unselfishness, good-will, right views.
lists occur repeatedly, e.g. in A. X, 28, 176; M. 9; they are
explained in detail in M. 114, and in Com. to M. 9 (R. Und.,
p. 14), Atthasálini Tr. I, 126ff.
'corporeality produced through karma'; s. samutthána.
lit. 'working-ground' (i.e. for meditation), is the term
in the Com. for 'subjects of meditation'; s. bhávaná.
'karma-round'; s. vatta.
'sensuous clinging', is one of the 4 kinds of clinging
'doubt', may be either an intellectual, critical doubt or
an ethically and psychologically detrimental doubt. The latter
may either be a persistent negative skepticism or wavering indecision.
Only the detrimental doubt (identical with vicikicchá,
q.v.) is to be rejected as karmically unwholesome, as it paralyses
thinking and hinders the inner development of man. Reasoned,
critical doubt in dubious matters is thereby not discouraged.
16 doubts enumerated in the Suttas (e.g. M. 2) are the following:
"Have I been in the past? Or, have I not been in the past?
What have I been in the past? How have I been in the past? From
what state into what state did I change in the past? - Shall
I be in the future? Or, shall I not be in the future? What shall
I be in the future? How shall I be in the future? From what
state into what state shall I change in the future? - Am I?
Or, am I not? What am I? How am I? Whence has this being come?
Whither will it go?"
'purification by overcoming doubt', is the 4th of the 7
stages of purification (visuddhi, q.v.).
(Sanskrit kalpa): 'world-period', an inconceivably
long space of time, an aeon. This again is subdivided into 4
sections: world-dissolution (samvatta-kappa) dissolving
world), continuation of the chaos (samvatta-ttháyí),
world-formation (vivatta-kappa), continuation of the
formed world (vivatta-ttháyí).
long a world-dissolution will continue, how long the chaos,
how long the formation, how long the continuation of the formed
world, of these things; o monks, one hardly can say that it
will be so many years, or so many centuries, or so many millennia,
or so many hundred thousands of years" (A. IV, 156)
detailed description of the 4 world-periods is given in that
stirring discourse on the all-embracing impermanence in A. VII,
beautiful simile in S. XV, 5 may be mentioned here: "Suppose,
o monks, there was a huge rock of one solid mass, one mile long,
one mile wide, one mile high, without split or flaw. And at
the end of every hundred years a man should come and rub against
it once with a silken cloth. Then that huge rock would wear
off and disappear quicker than a world-period. But of such world-periods,
o monks, many have passed away, many hundreds, many thousands,
many hundred thousands. And how is this possible? Inconceivable,
o monks, is this samsára (q.v.), not to be discovered is any
first beginning of beings, who obstructed by ignorance and ensnared
by craving, are hurrying and hastening through this round of
here Grimm's German fairy-tale of the little shepherdboy: 'In
Farther Pommerania there is the diamond-mountain, one hour high,
one hour wide, one hour deep. There every hundred years a little
bird comes and whets its little beak on it. And when the whole
mountain is ground off, then the first second of eternity has
(Sanskrit), Páli: kamma: 'action', correctly speaking
denotes the wholesome and unwholesome volitions (kusala-
and akusala-cetaná) and their concomitant mental
factors, causing rebirth and shaping the destiny of beings.
These karmical volitions (kamma cetaná) become manifest
as wholesome or unwholesome actions by body (káya-kamma),
speech (vací-kamma) and mind (mano-kamma).
Thus the Buddhist term 'karma' by no means signifies the result
of actions, and quite certainly not the fate of man, or perhaps
even of whole nations (the so-called wholesale or mass-karma),
misconceptions which, through the influence of theosophy, have
become widely spread in the West.
(cetaná), o monks, is what I call action (cetanáham
bhikkhave kammam vadámi), for through volition one performs
the action by body, speech or mind. . There is karma (action),
o monks, that ripens in hell.... Karma that ripens in the animal
world.. Karma that ripens in the world of men.... Karma that
ripens in the heavenly world.... Threefold, however, is the
fruit of karma: ripening during the life-time (dittha-dhamma-vedaníya-kamma),
ripening in the next birth (upapajja-vedaníya-kamma),
ripening in later births (aparápariya-vedaníya kamma) ...."
3 conditions or roots (múla, q.v.) of unwholesome karma
(actions) are greed, hatred, delusion (lobha, dosa, moha);
those of wholesome karma are: unselfishness (alobha),
hatelessness (adosa = mettá, good-will), undeludedness
(amoha = pańńá, knowledge) .
o monks, is a condition for the arising of karma; hatred is
a condition for the arising of karma; delusion is a condition
for the arising of karma ...." (A. III, 109).
unwholesome actions are of 3 kinds, conditioned by greed, or
hate, or delusion.
... stealing ... unlawful sexual intercourse ... lying ... slandering
... rude speech ... foolish babble, if practised, carried on,
and frequently cultivated, leads to rebirth in hell, or amongst
the animals, or amongst the ghosts" (A. III, 40). "He
who kills and is cruel goes either to hell or, if reborn as
man, will be short-lived. He who torments others will be afflicted
with disease. The angry one will look ugly, the envious one
will be without influence, the stingy one will be poor, the
stubborn one will be of low descent, the indolent one will be
without knowledge. In the contrary case, man will be reborn
in heaven or reborn as man, he will be long-lived, possessed
of beauty, influence, noble descent and knowledge" (cf.
the above 10-fold wholesome and unwholesome course of action,
see kamma-patha. For the 5 heinous crimes with immediate
result, s. ánantarika-kamma.
of their karma are the beings, heirs of their karma, their karma
is their womb from which they are born, their karma is their
friend, their refuge. Whatever karma they perform, good or bad,
thereof they will be the heirs" (M. 135).
regard to the time of the taking place of the karma-result (vipáka),
one distinguishes, as mentioned above, 3 kinds of karma:
karma ripening during the life-time (dittha-dhamma-vedaníya
karma ripening in the next birth (upapajja-vedaníya-kamma);
karma ripening in later births (aparápariya-vedaníya-kamma).
first two kinds of karma may be without karma-result (vipáka),
if the circumstances required for the taking place of the karma-result
are missing, or if, through the preponderance of counteractive
karma and their being too weak, they are unable to produce any
result. In this case they are called ahosi-kamma, lit.
'karma that has been', in other words, ineffectual karma.
third type of karma, however, which bears fruit in later lives,
will, whenever and wherever there is an opportunity, be productive
of karma-result. Before its result has ripened, it will never
become ineffective as long as the life-process is kept going
by craving and ignorance.
to the Com., e.g. Vis.M. XIX, the 1st of the 7 karmical impulsive-moments
(kamma javana; s. javana) is considered as 'karma
ripening during the life-time', the 7th moment as 'karma ripening
in the next birth', the remaining 5 moments as 'karma ripening
in later births'.
regard to their functions one distinguishes:
regenerative (or productive) karma (janaka-kamma),
supportive (or consolidating) karma (upatthambhaka-kamma),
counteractive (suppressive or frustrating) karma (upapílaka-kamma),
destructive (or supplanting) karma (upaghátaka- or upacchedaka-kamma).
produces the 5 groups of existence (corporeality, feeling, perception,
mental formations, consciousness) at rebirth as well as during
does not produce karma-results but is only able to maintain
the already produced karma-results.
counteracts or suppresses the karma-results.
destroys the influence of a weaker karma and effects only its
regard to the priority of their result one distinguishes:
weighty karma (garuka-kamma),
habitual karma (ácinnaka- or bahula-kamma),
death-proximate karma (maranásanna-kamma),
stored-up karma (katattá-kamma).
2) The weighty (garuka) and the habitual (bahula)
wholesome or unwholesome karma are ripening earlier than
the light and rarely performed karma. (3) The death-proximate
(maranásanna) karma - i.e. the wholesome or unwholesome
volition present immediately before death, which often may be
the reflex of some previously performed good or evil action
(kamma), or of a sign of it (kamma-nimitta), or
of a sign of the future existence (gati-nimitta) - produces
rebirth. (4) In the absence of any of these three actions at
the moment before death, the stored-up (katattá) karma
will produce rebirth.
real, and in the ultimate sense true, understanding of Buddhist
karma doctrine is possible only through a deep insight into
the impersonality (s. anattá) and conditionality (s.
paticcasamuppáda, paccaya) of all phenomena of existence.
"Everywhere, in all the forms of existence ... such a one
is beholding merely mental and physical phenomena kept going
by their being bound up through causes and effects.
doer does he see behind the deeds, no recipient apart from the
karma-fruit. And with full insight he clearly understands that
the wise ones are using merely conventional terms when, with
regard to the taking place of any action, they speak of a doer,
or when they speak of a receiver of the karma-results at their
arising. Therefore the ancient masters have said:
doer of the deeds is found,
one who ever reaps their fruits;
phenomena roll on:
view alone is right and true.
whilst the deeds and their results
on, based on conditions all,
no beginning can be seen,
as it is with seed and tree.' " (Vis.M. XIX)
(kamma-paccaya) is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,
q.v.) (App.: Kamma).
Karma and Rebirth, by Nyanatiloka (WHEEL 9); Survival and
Karma in Buddhist Perspective, by K.N. Jayatilleke (WHEEL
141/143); Kamma and its Fruit (WHEEL 221/224).
sankhára, i.e. wholesome or unwholesome volitions
(cetaná) manifested as actions of body, speech or mind,
form the 2nd link of the formula of dependent origination
s. bhava, paticcasamuppáda.
corporeality: s. samutthána.
kamma vatta (s. vatta).
acquired corporeality: upádinnarúpa (q.v.).
wholesome, unwholesome, neutral: kusala (q.v.), akusala
(q.v.) avyákata (q.v.); cf. Tab. I.. .
'compassion', is one of the 4 sublime abodes (brahma-vihára,
(perhaps related to Sanskrit krtsna, 'all, complete,
whole'), is the name for a purely external device to produce
and develop concentration of mind and attain the 4 absorptions
(jhána q.v.). It consists in concentrating one's full and
undivided attention on one visible object as preparatory image
(parikamma-nimitta), e.g. a colored spot or disc, or a piece
of earth, or a pond at some distance, etc., until at last one
perceives, even with the eyes closed, a mental reflex, the acquired
image (uggaha-nimitta). Now, while continuing to direct
one's attention to this image, there may arise the spotless
and immovable counter-image (patibhága-nimitta), and
together with it the neighbourhood-concentration (upacára-samádhi)
will have been reached. While still persevering in the concentration
on the object, one finally will reach a state of mind where
all sense-activity is suspended, where there is no more seeing
and hearing, no more perception of bodily impression and feeling,
i.e. the state of the 1st mental absorption (jhána, q.v.).
10 kasinas mentioned in the Suttas are: earth-kasina, water,
fire, wind, blue, yellow, red, white, space, and consciousness.
"There are 10 kasina-spheres: someone sees the earth kasina,
above, below, on all sides, undivided, unbounded .... someone
see the water-kasina, above, below, etc." (M. 77; D. 33)
Cf. abhibháyatan, bhávaná; further s. Fund. IV.
space and consciousness-kasina we find in Vis.M. V the names
limited space-kasina (paricchinnákása-kasina; . . . s.
App. ) and light-kasina (áloka-kasina).
full description see Vis.M. IV-V; also Atthasálini Tr. I, 248.
'stored-up karma'; s. karma.
(lit: accumulation): 'group', 'body', may either refer to
the physical body (rúpa-káya) or to the mental body (náma-káya).
In the latter case it is either a collective name for the
mental groups (feeling, perception, mental formations, consciousness;
s. khandha), or merely for feeling, perception and a
few of the mental formations (s. náma), e.g. in káya-lahutá,
etc. (cf. Tab. II). Káya has this same meaning in the
standard description of the 3rd absorption (jhána, q.v.)
"and he feels joy in his mind or his mental constitution
(káya)", and (e.g. Pug. 1-8) of the attainment of the
8 deliverances (vimokkha, q.v.); "having attained
the 8 deliverances in his mind, or his person (káya)."
- Káya is also the 5th sense-organ, the body-organ; s.
áyatana, dhátu, indriya.
'mindfulness with regard to the body', refers sometimes
(e.g. Vis.M. VIII, 2) only to the contemplation on the 32 parts
of the body, sometimes (e.g. M. 119) to all the various meditations
comprised under the 'contemplation of the body' (káyánupassaná),
the 1st of the 4 'foundations of mindfulness' (satipatthána,
q.v.), consisting partly in concentration (samádhi)
exercises, partly in insight (vipassaná) exercises. On
the other hand, the cemetery meditations (sívathika,
q.v.) mentioned in the Satipatthána S.(M. 10) are nearly the
same as the 10 contemplations of loathsomeness (asubha-bhávaná,
q.v.). of Vis.M. VI, whereas elsewhere the contemplation
on the 32 parts of the body is called the 'reflection on impurity'
such texts as: 'One thing, o monks, developed and repeatedly
practised, leads to the attainment of wisdom. It is the contemplation
on the body' (A.I), the reference is to all exercises mentioned
in the 1st Satipatthána.
VIII, 2 gives a detailed description and explanation of the
method of developing the contemplation on the 32 parts of the
body. This exercise can produce the 1st absorption only (jhána,
q.v.) The stereotype text given in the Satipatthána Sutta
and elsewhere - but leaving out the brain - runs as follows:
further, o monks, the monk contemplates this body from the soles
of the feet upward, and from the tops of the hairs downward,
with skin stretched over it, and filled with manifold impurities:
'This body has hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails,
teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver,
diaphragm, spleen, lungs, intestines, bowels, stomach, excrement,
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin grease, spittle,
nasal mucus, oil of the joints, and urine ...."
VIII, 2 says "By repeating the words of this exercise one
will become well acquainted with the wording, the mind will
not rush here and there, the different parts will become distinct
and appear like a row of fingers, or a row of hedge-poles. Now,
just as one repeats the exercise in words, one should do it
also in mind. The repeating in mind forms the condition for
the penetration of the characteristic marks.... He who thus
has examined the parts of the body as to colour, shape, region,
locality and limits, and considers them one by one, and not
too hurriedly, as something loathsome, to such a one, while
contemplating the body, all these things at the same time are
appearing distinctly clear. But also when keeping one's attention
fixed outwardly (i.e. to the bodies of other beings), and when
all the parts appear distinctly, then all men and animals moving
about lose the appearance of living beings and appear like heaps
of many different things. And it looks as if those foods and
drinks, being swallowed by them, were being inserted into this
heap of things. Now, while again and again one is conceiving
the idea 'Disgusting! Disgusting!' - omitting in due course
several parts - gradually the attainment - concentration (appaná-samádhi,
i.e. the concentration of the jhána) will be reached.
In this connection, the appearing of forms ... is called the
acquired image (uggaha-nimitta), the arising of loathsomeness,
however, the counter-image (patibháganimitta)."
'bodily action'; s. karma, kammapatha.
k.-lahutá, k.-mudutá, k.-páguńńatá,
k.-passaddhi, k.-ujukatá; s. Tab.
II. For passaddhi, s. further bojjhanga.
agility or lightness of mental factors (s. lahutá).
'contemplation of the body', is one of the 4 foundations
of mindfulness; s. satipatthána.
tranquillity of mental factors, s. bojjhanga.
'body-witness', is one of the 7 noble disciples (s. ariya-puggala,
B.). He is one who "in his own person (lit. body) has attained
the 8 deliverances (vimokkha, q.v.), and after wisely
understanding the phenomena, the cankers have partly come to
extinction" (Pug. 32). In A. IX, 44 it is said: "A
monk, o brother, attains the 1st absorption (jhána, q.v.),
and as far as this domain reaches,- so far he has realized it
in his own person. Thus the Blessed One calls such a person
a body-witness in certain respects. (The same is then repeated
with regard to the 7 higher absorptions). Further again, o brother,
the monk attains the extinction of perception and feeling (s.
nirodha-samápatti), and after wisely understanding the
phenomena, all the cankers come to extinction. Thus, o brother,
the Blessed One calls such a person a body-witness in all respects."
'moment'; s. citta-kkhana.
the 5 'groups (of existence)' or 'groups of clinging'
(upádánakkhandha); alternative renderings: aggregates, categories
of clinging's objects. These are the 5 aspects in which the
Buddha has summed up all the physical and mental phenomena of
existence, and which appear to the ignorant man as his ego,
or personality, to wit:
the corporeality group (rúpa-kkhandha),
the feeling group (vedaná-kkhandha),
the perception group (sańńá-kkhandha),
the mental-formation group (sankhára-kkhandha),
the consciousness-group (vińńána-kkhandha).
there exists of corporeal things, whether past, present or future,
one's own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or
near, all that belongs to the corporeality group. Whatever there
exists of feeling ... of perception ... of mental formations
... of consciousness ... all that belongs to the consciousness-group"
(S. XXII, 48). - Another division is that into the 2 groups:
mind (2-5) and corporeality (1) (náma-rúpa), whilst in
Dhamma Sanganí, the first book of the Abhidhamma, all the phenomena
are treated by way of 3 groups: consciousness (5), mental factors
(2-4), corporeality (1), in Páli citta, cetasika, rúpa. Cf.
is called individual existence is in reality nothing but a mere
process of those mental and physical phenomena, a process that
since time immemorial has been going on, and that also after
death will still continue for unthinkably long periods of time.
These 5 groups, however, neither singly nor collectively constitute
any self-dependent real ego-entity, or personality (attá),
nor is there to be found any such entity apart from them.
Hence the belief in such an ego-entity or personality, as real
in the ultimate sense, proves a mere illusion.
all constituent parts are there,
designation 'cart' is used;
so, where the five groups exist,
'living being' do we speak." (S. V. 10).
fact ought to be emphasized here that these 5 groups, correctly
speaking, merely form an abstract classification by the Buddha,
but that they as such, i.e. as just these 5 complete groups,
have no real existence, since only single representatives of
these groups, mostly variable, can arise with any state of consciousness.
For example, with one and the same unit of consciousness only
one single kind of feeling, say joy or sorrow, can be associated
and never more than one. Similarly, two different perceptions
cannot arise at the same moment. Also, of the various kinds
of sense-cognition or consciousness, only one can be present
at a time, for example, seeing, hearing or inner consciousness,
etc. Of the 50 mental formations, however, a smaller or larger
number are always associated with every state of consciousness,
as we shall see later on.
writers on Buddhism who have not understood that the five
khandha are just classificatory groupings, have conceived
them as compact entities ('heaps', 'bundles'), while actually,
as stated above, the groups never exist as such, i.e. they never
occur in a simultaneous totality of all their constituents.
Also those single constituents of a group which are present
in any given body- and -mind process, are of an evanescent nature,
and so also their varying combinations. Feeling, perception
and mental formations are only different aspects and functions
of a single unit of consciousness. They are to consciousness
what redness, softness, sweetness, etc. are to an apple and
have as little separate existence as those qualities.
S. XXII, 56, there is the following short definition of these
o monks, is the corporeality-group? The 4 primary elements (mahá-bhúta
or dhátu) and corporeality depending thereon, this is
called the corporeality-group.
o monks, is the feeling-group? There are 6 classes of feeling:
due to visual impression, to sound impression, to odour impression,
to taste impression, to bodily impression, and to mind impression....
o monks, is the perception-group? There are 6 classes of perception:
perception of visual objects, of sounds, of odours, of tastes,
of bodily impressions, and of mental impressions....
o monks, is the group of mental formations? There are 6 classes
of volitional states (cetaná): with regard to visual
objects, to sounds, to odours, to tastes, to bodily impressions
and to mind objects....
o monks, is the consciousness-group? There are 6 classes of
consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness,
tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, and mind-consciousness."
the inseparability of the groups it is said:
o brother, there exists of feeling, of perception and of mental
formations, these things are associated, not dissociated, and
it is impossible to separate one from the other and show their
difference. For whatever one feels, one perceives; and whatever
one perceives, of this one is conscious" (M. 43).
"Impossible is it for anyone to explain the passing out
of one existence and the entering into a new existence, or the
growth, increase and development of consciousness independent
of corporeality, feeling, perception and mental formations"
(S. XII, 53)
the inseparability and mutual conditionality of the 4 mental
groups s. paccaya (6, 7).
the impersonality (anattá) and emptiness (suńńatá)
of the 5 groups, it is said in S. XXII, 49:
there is of corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations
and consciousness, whether past, present or future, one's own
or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, this
one should understand according to reality and true wisdom:
'This does not belong to me, this am I not, this is not my Ego.'
in S. XXII, 95: "Suppose that a man who is not blind were
to behold the many bubbles on the Ganges as they are driving
along; and he should watch them and carefully examine them.
After carefully examining them, however, they will appear to
him empty, unreal and unsubstantial. In exactly the same way
does the monk behold all the corporeal phenomena ... feelings
... perceptions ... mental formations ... states of consciousness,
whether they be of the past, present or future ... far or near.
And he watches them and examines them carefully; and after carefully
examining them, they appear to him empty, unreal and unsubstantial."
5 groups are compared, respectively, to a lump of froth, a bubble,
a mirage, a coreless plantain stem, and a conjuring trick (S.
the Khandha Samyutta (S. XXII); Vis.M. XIV.
OF THE 5 GROUPS
Underived (no-upádá): 4 elements
solid, or earth-element (pathaví-dhátu)
liquid, or water-element (ápo-dhátu)
or fire-element (tejo-dhátu)
or wind-element (váyo-dhátu)
Derived (upádá): 24 secondary phenomena
sense-organs of: seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, body
sense-objects: form, sound, odour, taste, (bodily impacts)
impacts' (photthabba) are generally omitted in this list,
because these physical objects of body-sensitivity are identical
with the afore-mentioned solid element, heat and motion element.
Hence their inclusion under 'derived corporeality' would be
base of mind (hadaya-vatthu, q.v.)
expression (káya-vińńatti; s. vińńatti)
life (rúpa jívita; s. jívita)
element (ákása-dhátu, q.v.)
agility (rúpassa lahutá)
elasticity (rúpassa mudutá)
adaptability (rúpassa kammańńatá)
growth (rúpassa upacaya)
continuity (rúpassa santati; s. santána)
feelings may, according to their nature, be classified as 5
agreeable feeling sukha = káyiká sukhá vedaná
painful feeling dukkha = káyiká dukkhá vedaná
agreeable feeling somanassa = cetasiká sukhá vedaná
painful feeling domanassa = cetasiká dukkhá vedaná
feeling upekkhá = adukkha-m-asukhá vedaná
perceptions are divided into 6 classes: perception of form,
sound, odour, taste, bodily impression, and mental impression.
Group of Mental Formations
group comprises 50 mental phenomena, of which 11 are general
psychological elements, 25 lofty (sobhana) qualities,
14 karmically unwholesome qualities. Cf. Tab. 11.
Suttas divide consciousness, according to the senses, into 6
classes: eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-consciousness.
Abhidhamma and commentaries, however, distinguish, from the
karmical or moral viewpoint, 89 classes of consciousness. Cf.
vińńána and Tab. 1.
moral quality of feeling, perception and consciousness is determined
by the mental formations.
'patience', forbearance', is one of the 10 perfections (páramí,
'contemplation of dissolution', is one of the 18 chief kinds
of insight (s. vipassaná).
devá: 'the celestial beings corruptible by pleasures', are
a class of devas (q.v.) of the sensuous sphere. They waste their
time in merriment, play and enjoyment, and thereby become thoughtless,
and in their thoughtlessness they fall from that world (D. 1;
'the one in whom all cankers are destroyed' is a name for
the Arahat, or Holy One; s. ásava.
'function'. Regarding the 14 functions of consciousness,
'defilements', are mind-defiling, unwholesome qualities.
Vis.M. XXII, 49, 65: "There are 10 defilements, thus called
because they are themselves defiled, and because they defile
the mental factors associated with them. They are: (1) greed
(lobha), (2) hate (dosa), (3) delusion (moha),
(4) conceit (mána), (5) speculative views (ditthi),
(6) skeptical doubt (vicikicchá), (7) mental torpor (thína),
(8) restlessness (uddhacca); (9) shamelessness (ahirika),
(10) lack of moral dread or unconscientiousness (anottappa)."
For 1-3, s. múla; 4, s. mána; 5, s. ditthi;
6-8, s. nívarana; 9 and 10, s. ahirika-anottappa.
ten are explained in Dhs. 1229f and enumerated in Vibh. XII.
No classification of the k. is found in the Suttas, though
the term occurs quite often in them. For the related term, upakkilesa
(q.v.; 'impurities') different lists are given - (App.).
'sensuality considered as defilement' (s. kilesa)
might well be called 'subjective sensuality', in contradistinction
to 'objective sensuality' (vatthu-káma), i.e. the sensuous
objects (káma-guna). Cf. káma.
s. nibbána (1).
s. karma, kammapatha, sikkhápada.
'something', i.e. something evil that sticks or adheres
to character. 'Evil appendant', is a name for the 3 unwholesome
roots (múla). "There are 3 appendants: greed (lobha)
is an appendant, hate (dosa) is an appendant, delusion
(moha) is an appendant" (D. 33). 'Freed from appendants'
(akińcana) is a term for the perfectly Holy One (Arahat).
(or kriya)-citta: 'functional consciousness'
or 'karmically inoperative consciousness', is a name for such
states of consciousness as are neither karmically wholesome
(kusala), nor unwholesome (akusala), nor karma-results
(vipáka); that is, they function independently of karma.
Thus are also called all those worldly mental states in the
Arahat which are accompanied by 2 or 3 noble roots (greedlessness,
hatelessness, undeludedness), being in the Arahat karmically
neutral and corresponding to the karmically wholesome states
of a non-Arahat (s. Tab. 1-8 and 73-89), as well as the rootless
mirth-producing (hasituppáda) mind-consciousness-element
of the Arahat (Tab. 72); further, that mind-element (mano-dhátu)
which performs the function of advertence (ávajjana)
to the sense object (Tab. 70), and that mind-consciousness-element
(manovińńána-dhátu) which performs the functions of deciding
(votthapana) and advertence to the mental object (Tab. 71).
The last-named 2 elements, of course, occur in all beings.
with karma-resultant consciousness (vipáka) it belongs
to the group of 'karmically neutral consciousness' (avyákata).
See Tab. I (last column). - (App.).
cf. pańńá, ńána, vijjá, vipassaná, abhińńá.
'passing from one noble family to another', is the name
for one of the 3 kinds of Sotápanna (q.v.).
= kiriya (q.v.).
lit. 'wrongly-performed-ness' (ku+krta+ya), i.e.
scruples, remorse, uneasiness of conscience, worry, is one of
the karmically unwholesome (akusala) mental faculties
(Tab. II) which, whenever it arises, is associated with hateful
(discontented) consciousness (Tab. I and III, 30, 31). It is
the 'repentance over wrong things done, and right things neglected'
(Com. to A. I). Restlessness and scruples (uddhacca-kukkucca),
combined, are counted as one of the 5 mental hindrances
'liable to perturbation', is one who has not yet attained
full mastery over the absorptions. In Pug. 3 it is said: "What
person is liable to perturbation? Such a person gains the attainments
of the fine-material and immaterial sphere (s. avacara).
But he does not gain them at his wish, nor without toil and
exertion; and not at his wish as regards place, object and duration,
does he enter them or arise from them. Thus it is well possible
that in case of such a person, through negligence, the attainments
will become perturbed. This person is liable to perturbation."
'karmically wholesome' or 'profitable', salutary, morally
good, (skillful) Connotations of the term, according to Com.
(Atthasálini), are: of good health, blameless, productive of
favourable karma-result, skillful. It should be noted that Com.
excludes the meaning 'skillful', when the term is applied to
states of consciousness.
is defined in M. 9 as the 10 wholesome courses of action (s.
kammapatha). In psychological terms, 'karmically wholesome'
are all those karmical volitions (kamma-cetaná) and the
consciousness and mental factors associated therewith, which
are accompanied by 2 or 3 wholesome roots (s. múla),
i.e. by greedlessness (alobha) and hatelessness (adosa),
and in some cases also by non-delusion (amoha: wisdom,
understanding). Such states of consciousness are regarded as
'karmically wholesome' as they are causes of favourable karma
results and contain the seeds of a happy destiny or rebirth.
From this explanation, two facts should be noted: (1) it is
volition that makes a state of consciousness, or an act, 'good'
or 'bad'; (2) the moral criterion in Buddhism is the presence
or absence of the 3 wholesome or moral roots (s. múla).
above explanations refer to mundane (lokiya, q.v.) wholesome
consciousness. Supermundane wholesome (lokuttara-kusala)
states, i.e. the four paths of sanctity (s. ariyapuggala),
have as results only the corresponding four fruitions; they
do not constitute karma, nor do they lead to rebirth, and this
applies also to the good actions of an Arahat (Tab. I, 73-80)
and his meditative states (Tab. 1, 81-89), which are all karmically
inoperative (functional; s. kiriya).
belongs to a threefold division of all consciousness, as
found in the Abhidhamma (Dhs.), into wholesome (kusala),
unwholesome (akusala) and karmically neutral (avyákata),
which is the first of the triads (tika) in the Abhidhamma
schedule (mátiká); s. Guide, pp. 4ff., 12ff; Vis.M. XIV,
'wholesome course of action'; s. kammapatha.
the 'wholesome roots' or 'roots of wholesome action', are
greedlessness (alobha), hatelessness (adosa), and
non-delusion (amoha; s. múla). They are identical
with kusala-hetu (s . paccaya, 1).
the (mental) 'karma-result of wholesome karma' (s. karma).