Buddhist Dictionary



cága: 'liberality', is one of the 'blessings' (s. sampadá), 'foundations' (s. adhitthána), 'recollections' (s. anussati), 'treasures' (s. dhana).

cakka: 'wheel', is one of the seven 'precious possessions' (ratana) of a righteous World Emperor (cakkavatti: 'He who owns the Wheel,' cf. D. 26), and symbolizes conquering progress and expanding sovereignty. From that derives the figurative expression dhamma-cakkam pavatteti, 'he sets rolling the Wheel of the Law' and the name of the Buddha's first sermon, Dhamma-cakkappavattana Sutta (s. dhamma-cakka).

Another figurative meaning of C. is 'blessing'. There are 4 such 'auspicious wheels' or 'blessings': living in a suitable locality, company of good people, meritorious acts done in the past, right inclinations (A. IV, 31).

Bhava-cakka, 'wheel of existence', or of life, is a name for 'dependent origination' (s. paticca-samuppáda).

See The Buddhist Wheel Symbol, by T. B. Karunaratne (WHEEL 137/138); The Wheel of Birth and Death, by Bhikkhu Khantipalo (WHEEL 147/149)

cakkh' áyatana: 'the base "visual organ" ' (s. áyatana).

cakkhu: 'eye' s. áyatana. - The foll. 5 kinds of 'eyes' are mentioned and explained in CNid. (PTS, p. 235; the first 3 also in It. 52): 1. the physical eye (mamsa cakkhu), 2. the divine eye (dibba-cakkhu; s. abhiññá), 3. the eye of wisdom (paññá-cakkhu), 4 the eye of a Buddha (Buddha-c.), 5. the eye of all-round knowledge (samanta-c.; a frequent appellation of the Buddha).

cakkhu-dhátu: 'the element "visual organ" '(s. dhátu).

cakkhu-viññána: 'eye-consciousness' (s. viññána).

cankers: s. ásava.

carana: s. vijjá-carana.

carita: 'nature, character'. In Vis.M. III there are explained six types of men: the greedy-natured (rága-carita), the hate-natured (dosa-carita), the stupid or dull-natured (moha-carita), the faithful-natured (saddhá-carita), the intelligent-natured (buddhi-carita), the ruminating-natured (vitakka-carita). - (App.).

cáritta- and váritta-síla: 'morality consisting in performance and morality consisting in avoidance,' means "the performance of those moral rules which the Blessed one has ordained to be followed, and the avoidance of those things that the Blessed One has rejected as not to be followed" (Vis.M. III). - (App.).

catu-dhátu-vavatthána: 'analysis of the four elements'; s. dhátu-vavatthána.

catu-mahárájika-deva a class of heavenly beings of the sensuous sphere; s. deva.

catu-párisuddhi-síla: s. síla.

catu-vokára-bhava: 'four-group existence', is the existence in the immaterial world (arúpa-loka; s. loka), since only the four mental groups (feeling, perception, mental formations, consciousness, s. khandha) are found there, the corporeality group being absent. Cf. pañca-vokára-bhava, eka-vokára-bhava. (App.: vokára).

cause: cf. paccaya (1). - For the five c. of existence, s. paticca-samuppáda (10).

cemetery: ascetic practice of living in a c.; s. dhutanga.

cemetery-meditations: s. sívathiká.

cetaná: 'volition', will, is one of the seven mental factors (cetasika, q.v.) inseparably bound up with all consciousness, namely sensorial or mental impression (phassa), feeling (vedaná), perception (saññá), volition (cetaná), concentration (samádhi), vitality (jívita), advertence (manasikára). Cf. Tab. II, III.

With regard to karmical volition (i.e. wholesome or unwholesome karma) it is said in A. VI, 13: "Volition is action (karma), thus I say, o monks; for as soon as volition arises, one does the action, be it by body, speech or mind." For details, s. paticca-samuppáda (10), karma.

cetasika: 'mental things, mental factors', are those mental concomitants which are bound up with the simultaneously arising consciousness (citta = viññána) and conditioned by its presence . Whereas in the Suttas all phenomena of existence are summed up under the aspect of 5 groups: corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations, consciousness (s. khandha), the Abhidhamma as a rule treats them under the more philosophical 3 aspects: consciousness, mental factors and corporeality (citta, cetasika, rúpa). Thus, of these 3 aspects, the mental factors (cetasika) comprise feeling, perception and the 50 mental formations, altogether 52 mental concomitants. Of these, 25 are lofty qualities (either karmically wholesome or neutral), 14 karmically unwholesome, while 13 are as such karmically neutral, their karmical quality depending on whether they are associated with wholesome, unwholesome or neutral consciousness. For details s. Tab. II, III. Cf. prec. (App . )

cetaso vinibandha: 'mental bondages', are 5 things which hinder the mind from making right exertion, namely: lust for sensuous objects, for the body, for visible things, for eating and sleeping, and leading the monk's life for the sake of heavenly rebirth. For details, s. A.V, 205; X, 14; D. 33; M. 16. Cf. foll.

cetokhila: 'mental obduracies', are 5 things which stiffen and hinder the mind from making right exertion, namely: doubt about the Master, about the Doctrine, about the (holy) Brotherhood, about the training, and anger against one's fellow-monks. For details s. A.V, 206, X 14; D. 33; M. 16. Cf. prec.

ceto-pariya-ñána: 'penetrating knowledge of the mind (of others)', is one of the 6 higher powers (abhiññá 3, q.v.).

ceto-vimutti: 'deliverance of mind'. In the highest sense it signifies the fruition of Arahatship (s. ariya-puggala), and in particular, the concentration associated with it. It is often linked with the 'deliverance through wisdom' (paññá-vimutti, q.v.), e.g. in the ten powers of a Perfect One (s. dasa-bala). See vimokkha I.

It is also called 'unshakable deliverance of mind' (akuppa-c.); further 'boundless d. of m'. (appamána-c.); 'd. of m. from the conditions of existence, or signless d. of m.' (animittá-c.); 'd. of m. from the appendages' (ákincañña-c.), since that state of mind is free from the 3 bonds, conditions and appendants, i.e. from greed, hatred and ignorance; and since it is void thereof, it is called the 'void deliverance of mind' (suññatá-c.)

In a more restricted sense, 'boundless deliverance of mind' is a name for the 4 boundless states, i.e. loving-kindness, compassion, altruistic joy and equanimity (s. brahma-vihára); 'd. of m. from the appendages' stands for the 'sphere of nothingness' (ákiñcaññáyatana s. jhána 7); 'd. of mind from the conditions of existence', for d. of mind due to non-attention to all conditions of existence; 'void d. of m' for d. of m. due to contemplating voidness of self. For further details, s. M. 43.

chal-abhiññá: the 6 'higher powers'; s. abhiññá.

chal-abhiñño: an Arahat who is a 'possessor of the 6 higher powers' (s. abhiññá).

chanda: intention, desire, will.

1. As an ethically neutral psychological term, in the sense of 'intention', it is one of those general mental factors (cetasika, q.v. Tab. II) taught in the Abhidhamma, the moral quality of which is determined by the character of the volition (cetaná, q.v.) associated therewith. The Com. explains it as 'a wish to do' (kattu-kamyatá-chanda). If intensified, it acts also as a 'predominance condition' (s. paccaya 3).

2. As an evil quality it has the meaning of 'desire', and is frequently coupled with terms for 'sensuality', 'greed', etc., for instance: káma-cchanda, 'sensuous desire', one of the 5 hindrances (s. nívarana); chanda-rága, 'lustful desire' (s. káma). It is one of the 4 wrong paths (s. agati).

3. As a good quality it is a righteous will or zeal (dhamma-chanda) and occurs, e.g. in the formula of the 4 right efforts (s. padhána): "The monk rouses his will (chandam janeti)...." If intensified, it is one of the 4 roads to power (s. iddhipáda).

change, contemplation of: one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (vipassaná, q.v.) .

chaos: cf. kappa.

character: On the 6 kinds of human character, s. carita.

characteristics of existence, the. 3: ti-lakkhana (q.v.).

chaste life: brahma-cariya (q.v.).

chief-elements, the 4: mahá-bhúta (q.v.) - dhátu (q.v.).

cintá-maya-paññá: 'Wisdom (or knowledge) based on thinking', s. paññá.

citta: 'mind', 'consciousness', 'state of consciousness', is a synonym of mano (q.v.) and viññána (s. khandha and Tab. 1). Dhs. divides all phenomena into consciousness (citta), mental concomitants (cetasika, q.v.) and corporeality (rúpa).

In adhicitta, 'higher mentality', it signifies the concentrated, quietened mind, and is one of the 3 trainings (s. sikkhá). The concentration (or intensification) of consciousness is one of the 4 roads to power (s. iddhipáda).

citta-ja (citta-samutthána)-rúpa: 'mind-produced corporeality'; s. samutthána.

citta-kammaññatá, °lahutá, °mudutá, °paguññatá, °passaddhi, °ujukatá; s. Tab. II.

citta-kkhana: 'consciousness-moment', is the time occupied by one single stage in the perceptual process or cognitive series (cittavíthi; s. viññána-kicca). This moment again is subdivided into the genetic (uppáda), static (thiti) and dissolving (bhanga) moment. One such moment is said in the commentaries to be of inconceivably short duration and to last not longer than the billionth part of the time occupied by a flash of lightning. However that may be, we ourselves know from experience that it is possible within one single second to dream of innumerable things and events. In A. I, 10 it is said: "Nothing, o monks, do I know that changes so rapidly as consciousness. Scarcely anything may be found that could be compared with this so rapidly changing consciousness." (App. khana).

cittánupassaná: 'contemplation of consciousness', is one of the 4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthána, q.v.)

citta-samutthána-rúpa: 'mind-produced corporeality'; s. samutthána.

citta-sankhára: s. sankhára.

citta-santána: 'consciousness-continuity'; s. santána.

cittass'ekaggatá: 'one-pointedness of mind', is a synonym of concentration, or samádhi (q.v.)

citta-vipallása: 'perversion of mind'; s. vipallása.

citta-visuddhi: 'purification of mind', is the 2nd of the 7 stages of purification (visuddhi, II,. q.v.).

citta-víthi: 'process of consciousness'; s. viññána-kicca.

citt'ekaggatá = cittass'ekaggatá (q.v.).

clarity of consciousness: sampajañña (q.v.).

clinging, the 4 kinds of: upádána (q.v.).

cognitive series: s. viññána-kicca.

companionship: Influence of good and bad° = samseva (q.v.) .

compassion: karuná; s. brahma-vihára.

comprehension: clear c.: s. sampajañña. - c. in insight, s. sammasana. - As an alternative tr. for full understanding, s. pariññá.

co-nascence: sahajáta-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) .

conceit: mána (q.v.); further s. samyojana.

concentration: samádhi (q.v.) - right°, s. sacca (IV. 8), magga (8). - wrong°, s. micchá-magga (8).

conception 1. thought-c°: cf. vitakka-vicára.

conception 2. (in the mother's womb): okkanti (q.v.).

conditions, the 24: paccaya (q.v.).

conditions of existence, deliverance from the: see ceto-vimutti; vimokkha.

confidence: s. saddhá.

consciousness: viññána (s. khandha), citta (q.v.), mano (q v ) - Moment of °: citta-kkhana (q.v.). Contemplation of °: cittánupassaná: s. satipatthána - Corporeality produced by °: citta-ja-rúpa, s. samutthána - Abodes or supports of °: cf. viññánatthiti (q.v.) Functions of °: viññána-kicca (q.v.).

contemplation: s. anupassaná.

contentedness (with whatever robe, etc.) belongs to the noble usages: ariya-vamsa (q.v.).

contentment: appicchatá, is one of the ascetic virtues. Cf. A. X, 181-90.

contiguity: samanantara-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

continuity (of body, subconsciousness, consciousness or groups of existence): santána (q.v.).

control, effort of: s. padhána.

conventional (expression or truth): s. desaná.

corporeality: produced through consciousness, karma, etc.; s. samutthána. - Sensitive c.: pasáda-rúpa. (q.v.).

corporeality and mind: s. náma-rúpa.

corporeality-group: rúpa-kkhandha: s. khandha.

corporeality-perceptions: rúpa-saññá: s. jhána.

corruptions: s. upakkilesa.

cosmogony: cf. kappa.

counteractive karma: upapílaka-kamma; s. karma.

counter-image (during concentration): s. nimitta, kasina, samádhi.

course of action (wholesome or unwholesome): kammapatha (q.v.).

covetousness: abhijjhá (q.v.); further s. kamma-patha (1).

cowardice: s. agati.

craving: tanhá (q.v.), rága (q.v.); further s. múla.

created, the: sankhata (q.v.).

cuti-citta: 'death-consciousness', lit. 'departing consciousness', is one of the 14 functions of consciousness (viññána-kicca q.v.).

cutúpapáta-ñána the 'knowledge of the vanishing and reappearing' (of beings) is identical with the divine eye; s. abhiññá.

cycle of existence: s. samsará, vatta.