Buddhist Dictionary



ubhato-bhága-vimutta: the 'both-ways-liberated one', is the name of one class of noble disciples (ariya-puggala, q.v.). He is liberated in 2 ways, namely, by way of all 8 absorptions (jhána, q.v.) as well as by the supermundane path (sotápatti, etc.) based on insight (vipassaná, q.v.). In M. 70 it is said:

''Who, o monks, is a both-ways-liberated one'? If someone in his own person has reached the 8 liberations (absorptions), and through wise penetration the cankers (ásava, q.v.) have become extinguished, such a one is called a both-ways-liberated one.'' Cf. D. 15.

In the widest sense, one is both-ways-liberated if one has reached one or the other of the absorptions, and one or the other of the supermundane paths (cf. A. IX, 44).

The first liberation is also called 'liberation of mind' (cetovimutti), the latter liberation through wisdom' (paññá-vimutti).

The first liberation, however, is merely temporary, being a liberation through repression (vikkhambhana-vimutti = vikkhambhana-pahána: s. pahána).

uccheda-ditthi: 'annihilation-view'; s. ditthi.

udayabbayánupassaná-ñána: 'knowledge consisting in the contemplation of rise and fall', is the first of the 9 insight-knowledges constituting the purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress'. For details, s. visuddhi, VI. 1.

uddhacca: 'restlessness', belongs to the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.), and to the 5 hindrances (nívarana, q.v.). It is one of those 4 mental factors inseparably associated with all unwholesome consciousness (akusala-sádhárana, q.v.). Cf. Tab. II.

uddhambhágiya-samyojana: the 5 'higher fetters'; s. samyojana.

uddhamsota-akanitthagámí: 'passing upstream to the highest gods', is one of the 5 kinds of Non-returners (anágámí, q.v.).

uggaha-nimitta: s. nimitta.

ugghatitaññu: 'one who already during a given explanation comes to penetrate the truth' (Pug.). This is one of four types of persons classified according to their ability of acquiring insight, mentioned in A. IV, 133. Cf. also vipacitaññu, neyya, pada-parama. See The Requisites of Enlightenment, by Ledi Sayadaw (WHEEL 171/174) p. 1ff.

ujukatá: (káya-, citta- ): 'uprightness' (of mental factors and of consciousness), is associated with all pure consciousness. Cf. Tab. II.

unconditioned, the: asankhata (q.v.). - Contemplation of the u. (= animitta); s. vipassaná.

unconscious beings: asaññá-satta (q.v.).

understanding: s. ditthi, ñána, paññá, pariññá. - Right u., s. magga (1). sacca (IV.1).

unit: s. kalápa, rúpa-kalápa.

unprepared, unprompted: s. asankhárika-citta.

unshakable deliverance: s. cetto-vimutti.

unshakable one, the: akuppa-dhamma (q.v.).

unthinkable things, the 4: acinteyya (q.v.).

unwholesome, karmically: akusala (q.v.).

upacára: 'moment of access'; s. javana.

upacára-samádhi: 'neighbourhood or access-concentrationn', is the degree of concentration just before entering any of the absorptions, or jhánas. It still belongs to the sensuous sphere (kámávacara; s. avacara).

upacaya, rúpassa: 'growth of corporeality'; s. khandha I; App.

upacchedaka-kamma: 'destructive karma'; s. karma.

upádána: 'clinging', according to Vis.M. XVII, is an intensified degree of craving (tanhá, q.v.). The 4 kinds of clinging are: sensuous clinging (kámupádána), clinging to views (ditthupádána), clinging to mere rules and ritual (sílabbatupádána), clinging to the personaljty-belief (atta-vádupádána).

(1) "What now is the sensuous clinging? Whatever with regard to sensuous objects there exists of sensuous lust, sensuous desire, sensuous attachment, sensuous passion, sensuous deludedness, sensuous fetters: this is called sensuous clinging.

(2) ''What is the clinging to views? 'Alms and offerings are useless; there is no fruit and result for good and bad deeds: all such view and wrong conceptions are called the clinging to views.

(3) "What is the clinging to mere rules and ritual? The holding firmly to the view that through mere rules and ritual one may reach purification: this is called the clinging to mere rules and ritual.

(4) "What is the clinging to the personality-belief? The 20 kinds of ego-views with regard to the groups of existence (s. sakkáya-ditthi): these are called the clinging to the personality-belief" (Dhs. 1214-17).

This traditional fourfold division of clinging is not quite satisfactory. Besides kamupádána we should expect either rúpupádána and arúpupádána, or simply bhavupádána. Though the Anágámí is entirely free from the traditional 4 kinds of upádána, he is not freed from rebirth, as he still possesses bhavupádána. The Com. to Vis.M. XVII, in trying to get out of this dilemma, explains kámupádána as including here all the remaining kinds of clinging.

"Clinging' is the common rendering for u., though 'grasping' would come closer to the literal meaning of it, which is 'uptake'; s. Three Cardinal Discourses (WHEEL 17), p.19.

upádána-kkhandha: the 5 'groups of clinging', or more clearly stated in accordance with Vis.M., 'the 5 groups of existence which form the objects of clinging'. Cf. M. 44, and see khandha.

upádá-rúpa: 'derived corporeality', signifies the 24 secondary corporeal phenomena dependent on the 4 primary physical elements, i.e. the sense-organs and sense-objects, etc. See khandha I; App.

upadhi: 'substratum of existence'. In the Com. there are enumerated 4 kinds: the 5 groups (khandha, q.v.), sensuous desire (káma), mental defilements (kilesa, q.v.), karma (q.v.). In the suttas it occurs frequently in Sn. (vv. 33, 364, 546, 728), and, with reference to Nibbána, in the phrase "the abandoning of all substrata" (sabbúpadhi-patinissagga; D. 14). See viveka (3).

upádi: lit. 'something which one grasps, to which one clings, i.e. the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.). In the suttas, the word is mostly used in such expressions as "One of the 2 fruits may be expected: either perfect wisdom or, if the groups are still remaining (sati upádi-sese, 'if there is a remainder of groups ), Anágámíship" (D. 22). Further (A. IV. 118): "Here the Perfect One has passed into the Nibbána-element in which no more groups are remaining (anupádi-sesa)." Cf. nibbána. upádinna-rúpa: 'karmically acquired corporeality', or 'matter clung-to (by karma)', is identical with karma-produced corporeality (kammaja-rúpa; s. samutthána). In Vis.M. XIV it is said: "That corporcality which, later on, we shall refer to as 'karma-produced' (kammaja), is, for its being dependent on previous (pre-natal) karma, called 'karmically acquired'. '' The term (upádinna) occurs so in the suttas, e.g. M. 28 (WHEEL 101), 62, 140. See Dhs. §990; Khandha Vibh.

upaghátaka-kamma: 'destructive karma'; s. karma.

upahacca-parinibbáyí: 'one who reaches Nibbána within the first half of life', is one of the 5 kinds of Anágámí (q.v.).

upakkilesa: 'impurities', corruptions, imperfections (a frequent rendering by 'defilements' is better reserved for kilesa, q.v.).

A list of 16 moral 'impurities of the mind' (cittassa upakkilesa) is mentioned and explained in M. 7 & 8 (WHEEI. 61/62): 1. covetousness and unrighteous greed (abhijjhá-visamalobha), 2. ill will (vyápáda), 3. anger (kodha), 4. hostility (upanáha), 5. denigration (makkha), 6. domineering (palása), 7. envy (issá), 8. stinginess (macchariya), 9. hypocrisy (máyá), 10. fraud (sátheyya), 11. obstinacy (thambha), 12. presumption (sárambha), 13. conceit (mána), 14. arrogance (atimána), 15. vanity (mada), 16. negligence (pamáda).

There are 3 groups of upakkilesa pertaining to meditation:

(a) 9 mental imperfections occurring in 'one devoted to higher mental training' (adhicitta); 3 coarse ones - evil conduct in deeds, words and thoughts; 3 medium - thoughts of sensual desire, ill will and cruelty; 3 subtle - thoughts about one's relatives, one's country and one's reputation (A. III, 100).

(b) 18 imperfections in the practice of mindfulness of breathing (ánápána-sati, q.v.), mentioned in Pts.M., Ánápána-kathá (tr. in Mindfulness of Breathing, by Ñánamoli Thera (p. 60; BPS).

(c) 10 'imperfections of insight' (-meditation, vipassanúpakkilesa); s. visuddhi V.

upanissaya-paccaya: 'decisive support' or 'inducement', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).

upapajja-vedaníya-kamma: 'karma ripening in the next birth'; s. karma.

upapatti-bhava: 'rebirth-process'; s. bhava.

upapílaka-kamma: 'suppressive kamma'; s. karma.

upásaka: lit. 'sitting close by', i.e. a 'lay adherent', is any lay follower who is filled with faith and has taken refuge in the Buddha, his doctrine and his community of noble disciples (A. VIII, 25). His virtue is regarded as pure if he observes the 5 Precepts (pañca-síla; s. sikkhápada). He should avoid the following wrong ways of livelihood: trading in arms, in living beings, meat, alcohol and poison (A. V, 177). See also A. VIII, 75.

upasamánussati: 'recollection of the peace of Nibbána', is the last of the 10 recollections (anussati, q.v.). "Whatsoever, o monks, there are of things, as highest of them is considered detachment (virága), i.e. the crushing of conceit, the stilling of thirst, the uprooting of clinging, the breaking through the round of rebirths, cessation of craving, detachment, extinction, Nibbána" (A. IV, 34).

upásiká: 'female adherent'; s. upásaka.

upatthambhaka-kamma: 'supportive karma'; s. karma.

upavicára: s. manopavicára.

upekkhá: 'equanimity', also called tatra-majjhattatá (q.v.), is an ethical quality belonging to the sankhára-group (s. khandha) and should therefore not be confounded with indifferent feeling (adukkha-m-asukhá vedaná) which sometimes also is called upekkhá (s. vedaná).

upekkhá is one of the 4 sublime abodes (brahma-vihára, q.v.), and of the factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.). See Vis.M. IV, 156ff.

upekkhá-ñána = sankhárupekkhá-ñána (q.v.).

upekkhá-sambojjhanga: 'equanimity as factor of enlightenment'; s. bojjhanga.

upekkhá-sukha: 'equanimous happiness,' is the feeling of happiness accompanied by a high degree of equanimity (upekkhá) as, e.g. in the 3rd absorption (jhána q.v.).

upekkhá-vedaná: s. vedaná.

upekkhindriya: the 'faculty of indifference', is one of the 5 elements of feeling (M. 115) and therefore not to be confounded with the ethical quality 'equanimity', also called upekkhá (q.v.).

upekkhopavicára: 'indulging in indifference'; s. manopavicára.

uposatha: lit. 'fasting', i.e. 'fasting day', is the full-moon day, the new-moon day, and the two days of the first and last moonquarters. On full-moon and new-moon days, the Disciplinary Code, the Pátimokkha, is read before the assembled community of monks (bhikkhu), while on the mentioned 4 moon-days many of the faithful lay devotees go to visit the monasteries, and there take upon themselves the observance of the 8 rules (attha-síla; sikkhápada). See A. VIII, 41ff.

uprightness: ujukatá q.v.

upstream to the highest gods, passing: s. anágámí.

usages, the 4 noble: ariya-vamsa (q.v.).

utu: temperature, heat, is identical with the heat-element (tejodhátu, q.v.).

utu-samutthána (- utuja)-rúpa: 'corporeality produced by temperature'; s. samutthána.